See James Russell’s talk, “Language, Emotion, and Facial Expression,” from The Emotional Brain Conference, May 2011: 

(click on an article for a .pdf of it)

In Press

Kayyal, M. H. & Widen, S. C. (in press). Monsters and growling dogs: a dual-source theory of the child’s concept of fear. Psychological Topics.

Widen, S. C., Pochedly, J. T., Pieloch, K., & Russell, J. A. (in press). Introducing the sick face. Motivation & Emotion. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9353-6

Kayyal, M. H., Widen, S. C., & Russell, J. A. (in press).  What made Sahar scared?: Imaginary and realistic causes in Palestinian and American children's concept for fear.  Cognition and Culture.


Yik, M., Widen, S. C., & Russell, J. A. (2013): The within-subjects design in the study of facial expressions. Cognition & Emotion, doi:10.1080/02699931.2013.763769

Widen, S. C. (2013).  Children’s interpretation of facial expressions: The long path from valence-based to specific discrete categories.  Emotion Review.

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2013). Children's recognition of disgust in others. Psychological Bulletin. doi:: 10.1037/a0031640


Kuppens, P., Tuerlinckx, F., Russell, J. A., & Barrett, L. F. (2012). The relation between valence and arousal in subjective experience. Psychological Bulletin.

Russell, J. A. (2012).  From a psychological constructionist perspective.  In P. Zachar & R. Ellis (Eds.), Categorical versus dimensional models of affect: A seminar on the theories of Panksepp and Russell. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.  

Russell, J. A. (2012).  Preliminary comments on Panksepp.  In P. Zachar & R. Ellis (Eds.), Categorical versus dimensional models of affect: A seminar on the theories of Panksepp and Russell. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.

Russell, J. A. (2012).  Final remarks.  In P. Zachar & R. Ellis (Eds.), Categorical versus dimensional models of affect: A seminar on the theories of Panksepp and Russell. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing

Pochedly, J. T., Widen, S. C., & Russell J. A.  (2012).  What emotion does the “facial expression of disgust” express?  Emotion.  Advanced online publication.  doi: 10.1037/a0027998

Nelson, N. L. & Russell, J. A. (2012). Children’s understanding of nonverbal expressions of pride.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 379-385.  doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.09.004

Russell, J. A., Rosenberg, E. L., & Lewis, M. D. (2012). Introduction to a special section on basic emotion theory.  Emotion Review, 3, 363.  doi: 10.1177/1754073911411606


Nelson, Nicole L. & Russell, James A. (2011). Preschoolers’ use of dynamic facial, bodily, and vocal cues to emotion.  Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 110, 52-61.

Widen, S. C. & Naab, P.  (2011).  Can an anger face also be scared? Malleability of facial expressions.  Emotion.  Advanced online publication.  doi: 10.1037/a0026119

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2011).  In building a script for an emotion, do preschoolers add its cause before its behavior consequence?  Social Development, 20, 471-485.  doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00594.x

Widen, S. C., Christy, A. M., Hewett, K., & Russell, J. A.  (2011).  Do proposed facial expressions of contempt, shame, embarrassment, and sympathy communicate the predicted emotion?  Cognition and Emotion, 25, 898-906.  doi: 10.1080/02699931.2010.508270

Nelson, N. L. & Russell, J. A. (2011).  When dynamic, the head and face alone can express pride. Emotion, 11, 990-993.  doi: 10.1037/a0022576

Yik, M., Russell, J. A., & Steiger, J. H. (2011). A 12-point circumplex structure of core affect. Emotion, 11, 705-731.  doi: 10.1037/a0023980

Nelson, N. L. & Russell, J. A. (2011).  Putting motion in emotion: Do dynamic presentations increase preschooler's recognition of emotion?  Cognitive Development, 26, 248-259.  doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2011.06.001


Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2010). Differentiation in preschoolers' categories for emotion. Emotion, 10, 651-661.  doi: 10.1037/a0019005

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2010). Descriptive and prescriptive definitions of emotion. Emotion Review, 2, 377-378.  doi: 10.1177/1754073910374667

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2010). The "disgust face" conveys anger to children. Emotion, 10, 455-466doi:10.1037/a0019151

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2010). Children's scripts for social emotions: Causes and consequences are more central than are facial expressions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 565-581.  doi: 10.1348/026151009X457550d

Colibazzi, T., Posner, J., Wang, Z., Gorman, D., Gerber, A., Yu, Zhu, H., Kangarlu, A., Duan, Y., Russell, J. A., & Peterson, B. S. (2010).  Neural systems subserving valence and arousal during the experience of induced emotions.  Emotion, 10, 377-389. doi: 10.1037/a0018484


Russell, J. A. (2009). Emotion, Core Affect, and Psychological Construction.  Cognition & Emotion, 23, 1259-1283. doi: 10.1080/0269993090280937

Posner, J., Russell, J. A., Gerber, A., Gorman, D., Colibazzi, T., Yu, S., Wang, Z., Kangarlu, A., Zhu, H., Peterson, B. S. (2009).  The neurophysiological bases of emotion: An fMRI study of the affective circumplex using emotion-denoting words.  Human Brain Mapping, 30, 883-895. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20553


Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2008a). Young children's understanding of other's emotions. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 348-363). New York, NY: Guilford.

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2008b). Children acquire emotion categories gradually. Cognitive Development, 23, 291-312.

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2008c). Children’s and adults’ understanding of the “disgust face.” Cognition and Emotion, 22, 1513-1541.


Naab, P.J & Russell, J.A. (2007). Judgments of emotion from spontaneous facial expressions of New Guineans. Emotion, 7, 736-744.


Barchard, K.A., & Russell, J.A. (2006). Bias in consensus scoring, with examples from ability emotional intelligence tests. Psicotherma, 18, 49-54.

Lindquist, K. A., Barrett, L.F., Bliss-Moreau, E., & Russell, J.A. (2006). Language and the perception of emotion. American Psychological Association, 6, 125-138.

Russell, J. A. (2006). Emotions are not modules. Canadian Journal of Philosohpy, Supplementary 32, 53-72.


Russell, J.A. (2005). Emotion in human consciousness is built on core affect. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 26-42.


Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2004). The relative power of an emotion's facial expression, label, and behavioral consequence to evoke preschoolers' knowledge of its cause.  Cognitive Development, 19, 111-125.


Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145-172.

Russell, J.A., Bachorowski, J., & Fernandez-Dols, J.M. (2003). Facial and vocal expressions of emotion. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 329-349.

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2003). A closer look at preschoolers' freely produced labels for facial expressions. Developmental Psychology, 39, 114-128.


Russell, J. A. & Widen, S. C. (2002a). A label superiority effect in children's categorization of facial expressions. Social Development, 11, 30-52.

Russell, J. A., & Widen, S. C. (2002b). Words versus faces in evoking preschool children's knowledge of the causes of emotions. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 97-103.

Widen, S. C. & Russell, J. A. (2002). Gender and preschoolers' perception of emotion. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 248-262.  


Yik, M. S. M., & Russell, J. A. (2001). Predicting the Big Two of affect from the Big Five of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 247-277.  


Carroll, J. M., Yik, M., Russell, J. A., & Barrett, L. F. (1999). On the psychometric principles of affect. Review of General Psychology, 3, 14-22.

Russell, J.A., & Barrett, L. F. (1999). Core affect, prototypical emotional episodes, and other things called emotion: Dissecting the elephant. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 805-819.

Russell, J. A., & Carroll, J. A. (1999a). The phoenix of bipolarity: A reply to Watson and Tellegen. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 611-617.

Russell, J. A. & Carroll, J. M. (1999b). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3-30.  


Yik, M. S. M., Meng, Z., & Russell, J. A. (1998). Adults' freely produced emotion labels for babies' spontaneous facial expressions. Z`Cognition and Emotion,12, 723-730.  


Carroll, J. M., & Russell, J. A. (1997). Facial expressions in Hollywood's portrayal of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 164-176.

Russell, J. A. & Fernandez-Dols, J. M. (1997). What does a facial expression mean? In J. A. Russell & J. M. Fernandez-Dols (Eds.), The psychology of facial expression: Studies in emotion and social interaction, 2nd series (pp. 3-30). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.  


Carroll, J.M., & Russell, J.A. (1996). Do facial expressions express specific emotions? Judging emotion from the face in context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 205-218.  


Russell, J.A. (1995). Facial expressions of emotion: What lies beyond minimal universality? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 379-391.  


Russell, J. A. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression?: A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 102-141.

Russell, J. A., & Fehr, B. (1994). Fuzzy concepts in a fuzzy hierarchy: Varieties of anger. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 186-205.  


Russell, J. A. (1993). Forced-choice response format in the study of facial expression. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 41-51.

Russell, J.A., & Suzuki, N., & Ishida, N. (1993). Canadian, Greek, and Japanese Freely Produced Emotion Labels for Facial Expressions. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 337-351.  


Russell, J. A. (1991a). Culture and the categorization of emotion. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 426-450.

Russell, J.A. (1991b). In defense of a prototype approach to emotion concepts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 37-47.  


Russell, J. A. (1990). Measures of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience, Vol. 4 (pp. 83-111). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Russell, J. A. (1990). The preschooler's understanding of the causes and consequences of emotion. Child Development, 61, 1872-1881.  


Russell, J.A., Weiss, A., & Mendelsohn, G.A. (1989). Affect Grid: A Single-Item Scale of Pleasure and Arousal. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 3, 493-502.  


Bullock, M., & Russell, J. A. (1986). Concepts of emotion in developmental psychology. In C. E. Izard & P. B. Read (Eds.), Measuring emotions in infants and children, Vol. II (pp. 203-237). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Russell, J. A., & Bullock, M. (1986). On the dimensions preschoolers use to interpret facial expressions of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 22, 97-102.

Russell, J. A., & Bullock, M. (1986).  Fuzzy concepts and the perception of emotion in facial expressions.  Social Cognition, 4, 309-341.

Woudzia, L., & Russell, J.A. (1986). Affective judgements, common sense, and Zajonc's thesis of independence. Motivation and Emotion, 10, 168-183.  


Fehr, B., & Russell, J.A. (1984). Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 464-486.  


Russell, J.A. (1980). A cirumplex model of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 1161-1178.  


Russell, J.A., & Mehrabian, A. (1977). Evidence for a three-factor theory of emotions. Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 273-294.