EN 787:01                                                                                                                                       Spring, 2007

Ireland: The Colonial Context                                                                                    Jim Smith

Gasson 201                                                                                                                                     Friday 2:00-4:25



As Seamus Deane asserts, “Ireland is the only Western European country that has had both an early and a late colonial experience.”  This seminar spans the major cultural and historical moments and surveys the associated literary production connecting these experiences: the Norman invasion, the Elizabethan and Jacobean plantations, the emergence of an Anglo-Irish identity, the cultural nationalist response to imperialism, the ongoing decolonizing process, and the emergence of a post-national "liberated" society.  The seminar’s main objective, therefore, is to evaluate how Irish culture manifests and/or resists the colonial encounter.  In the process, students analyze the complexities of positioning Irish cultural studies in the wider context of post-colonial studies.  Particular attention is paid to the issues of language, literary tradition and literary authority, and to representations of place, gender, and identity.


Course Materials:

BC Bookstore

                  Carroll, Clare and Patricia King. Eds.                                   Ireland and Postcolonial Theory

                  Finneran, Richard. Ed.                 The Yeats Reader

                  Friel, Brian.                                          Translations

Hawes, Clement.                              Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings

Kenny, Kevin.                                                      Ireland the British Empire

Lawless, Emily.                                 Grania: The Story of an Island. Online Text: (http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/english/micsun/IrishResources/Grania/grancont.htm)

O’Brien, Peggy. Ed.                      The Wake Forrest Book of Irish Women’s Poetry, 1967-2000

                  O Tuama, Sean &                            An Duanaire 1600-1900: Poems of the Dispossessed

                  Kinsella, Thomas. Eds.

                  Parkin, Andrew. Ed.                      Selected Plays Dion Boucicault

                  Shakespeare, William.                 Henry V

Smith, James M.                              Two Irish National Tales: Maria Edgeworth Castle Rackrent and Sydney Owenson (Lady Morgan) The Wild Irish Girl.

Synge, John Millington.             Aran Islands

Synge, John Millington               The Playboy of the Western World and Other Plays


O’Neill Library Reserve Desk -- [RES]

Bourke, Angela et. al.                                    The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing: Irish Women’s Writing and Traditions, Vol. IV & V.         

                  Deane, Seamus (ed.).                                     Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, Vol. I-III.


O’Neill Library Media Reserve Desk -- [MRES]

                  Henry V


Seminar Requirements:

1. Beginning with the class on "Spenser and his Contemporaries" (1/26), each week a group of students will summarize and evaluate criticism on the assigned text, prepare and circulate a report/ annotated bibliography for members of the seminar, and assumes a leadership role in discussion. Each presenter will examine one additional reading (indicated on Syllabus under asterisks, i.e., ******) and incorporate it into the group report.  As a result, each week we will hope to cover at least three critical responses to the text/author and thereby achieve a better understanding of the wider field/debate. To facilitate this process, each group will email a two-page report to the class (no later than the Wednesday evening prior to Friday’s class meeting) including:

Š          A summary, an evaluation, and a list of a major issues explored in the critical literature

Š          Some questions we should consider before class to prepare for discussion


I have incorporate much of the established as well as some more recent bibliography directly onto the syllabus. But everyone should continue to utilize BC Libraries and online resources with the goal of creating as comprehensive a bibliography as possible for these writers (please email any suggestions/important omissions). Everyone should expect to participate in two presentations over the course of the semester (10%).


2. For the weeks when you are not presenting, in addition to reading the text, come to class ready to respond to the assigned critical readings.  In particular, everyone should engage the questions set forth by the presenters and participate in an active manner on a consistent basis (10 %).


3. A short (7-9 page) conference style paper or review of a recently published critical book relevant to class discussion (list to be circulated) due on March 2 (30%).


4. A seminar paper (15-18 pages approx.) on a topic related to the course readings.  Abstracts to be circulated by email before April 5, individual conferences with me the week of April 8-13, finished draft due on May 4. This project can develop from your short paper or your class presentations (50%).




Jan. 19                 Introductions.


Edward Said, “Introduction,” Culture and Imperialism, xi-xviii. [Online Reserves]


Seamus Deane, "Introduction," Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature.  Minneaspolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990. 3-22. [Online Reserves]


Joe Cleary, "'Misplaced Ideas'? Colonialism, Location, and Dislocation in Irish Studies." Ireland and Postcolonial Theory, 16-45.


David Lloyd, "After History: Historicism and Irish Postcolonial Studies." Ireland and Postcolonial Theory, 46-62.


Jan. 26                 "The Early Planters: Spenser and his Contemporaries" and "Ireland and her Past: Topographical and Historical Writing to 1690." The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing. Vol. 1. 171-273. [Online Reserves]


Clare Carroll, "Barbarous Slaves and Civil Cannibals: Translating Civility in Early Modern Ireland," Ireland and Postcolonial Theory, 63-80.


Jane H. Ohlmeyer, "A Laboratory for Empire?: Early Modern Ireland and English Imperialism." Ireland and the British Empire, 26-60.



David Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [RES]

_____. "Literature and Empire." The Origins of Empire: British Overseas Enterprise to the Close of the Seventeenth Century. Vol. 1.  The Oxford History of the British Empire. Ed. Nicholas Canny. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998.99-123. [Online Reserves]


David Baker, Between Nations: Shakespeare, Spenser, Marvell, and the Question of Britain. Stanford UP, 1997. Ch.2. "Border Crossings: Edmund Spenser's A View of the Present State of Ireland," 66-123. [RES]


Nicholas Canny, Making Ireland British. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. [RES]

_____. "Identity Formation in Ireland: The Emergence of the Anglo-Irish." Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, 1500-1800. Ed. Nicholas Canny and Anthony Pagden. Princeton: Princeton Univeristy Press, 1987. 159-212,

_____. "Debate: Spenser's Irish Crisis: Humanism and Experience in the 1590s." Past & Present 120 (August 1988):201-215.


Clare Carroll, "The Construction of Gender and the Cultural and Political Other in The Faerie Queen V and A View of the Present State of Ireland." Circe's Cup: Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Writing about Ireland. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P., 2001. 28-47. [Online Reserves]


Andrew Hadfield. Spenser's Irish Experience: Wilde Fruit and Salvage Soyl. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. [RES]


Willy Maley, Salvaging Spenser: Colonialism, Culture and Identity. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997. [RES]


Feb. 2                    Shakespeare King Henry V and Jonson The Irish Masque at Court


Wiley Maley, "'This Sceptred Isle: Shakespeare and the British Problem." Nation, State, and Empire in English Renaissance Literature: Shakespeare to Milton. New York: Palgrave, 2003. 7-30. [Online Reserves]


Philip Schwyzer, "'I Am Welsh You Know': The Nation in Henry V," Literature, Nationalism, and Memory in Early Modern England and Wales, Cambridge UP, 2004. 126-150. [Online Reserves]



Andrew Murphy, But the Irish Sea Betwixt Us: Ireland, Colonialism and Renaissance Literature. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1999.


David Baker, Between Nations: Shakespeare, Spenser, Marvell, and the Question of Britain. Stanford UP, 1997. Ch. 1. "Imagining Britain: William Shapespeare's Henry V," 17-65. [RES]


Cairns & Richards “What ish my nation,” Writing Ireland: Colonialism, Nationalism and Culture, Manchester University Press, 1988. 1-22 [Online Reserves]


Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, "History and Ideology: The Instance of Henry V." Alternative Shakespeares.


Fitter, Chris.  "A Tale of Two Branaghs: Henry V, Ideology, and the Mekong Agincourt." Shakespeare Left and Right. Ed. Ivo Kamps. London: Routledge, 1991. 259-75.


Lisa Hopkins, "Neighbourhood and Henry V."  Shakespeare and Ireland: History, Politics, Culture. Ed. Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray. London: Macmillan, 1997. 9-27. [RES].


Christopher Highley, Shakespeare, Spenser, and the Crisis in Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997. [RES]


Wiley Maley, "Shakespeare, Holinshed and Ireland: Resources and Con-texts." Shakespeare and Ireland: History, Politics, Culture. Ed. Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray. London: Macmillan, 1997. 27-46. [RES].


James M. Smith, “Effaced History: Facing the Colonial Contexts of Ben Jonson’s Irish Masque at Court.” ELH 65 (1998): 297-321. [Online Reserves]


Mark Thornton Burnett and Ramona Wray, Shakespeare and Ireland: History, Politics, Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997.


Feb. 9                    Bardic and Jacobite Poetry. An Duanaire. Ed. O Tuama & Kinsella, 82-190  (Textbook); and "Literature in Irish 1600-1800," Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, Vol.1. 274-326. [Online Reserves]


Marc Caball, " Introduction," Poets and Politics: Continuity and Reaction in Irish Poetry, 1558-1625.  Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P., 1998. 1-14. [Online Reserves]


Breandan O'Buchalla, "Irish Jacobite Poetry." Irish Review 12(1992): 40-49. [Online Reserves]



Breandan O'Buchalla, "Poetry and Politics in Early Modern Ireland." Eighteenth-Century Ireland/Iris an dá Chultúr 7(1992):149-75.

______. "James Our True King: The Ideology of Irish Royalism in the Seventeenth Century." Political Thought in Ireland Since the Seventeenth Century. Ed. D. George Boyce, et. al. London: Routledge, 1993. 7-35. [Online Reserves]


Brendan Bradshaw, "Geoffrey Keating: Apologist of Irish Ireland." Representing Ireland: Literature and the Origins of Conflict, 1534-1660. Eds. Brendan Bradshaw, Andrew Hadfield and Wiley Maley. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. 166-90. [Online Reserves]


Dunne, T. J. "The Gaelic Response to Conquest and Colonisation: The Evidence of the Poetry." Studia Hibernica 20 (1980): 7-30.


David Edwards, "The Legacy of Defeat: The Reduction of Gaelic Ireland after Kinsale." The Battle of Kinsale. Ed. Hiram Morgan. Bray: Wordell Books, 2004. 279-99. [Online Reserves]


Alan Harrison’s “Introduction: Literature in Irish 1600-1800,” Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing Vol. 1., 274-8. [RES]


Joep Leerssen, Mere Irish and Fíor-Ghael: Studies in the Idea of Irish Nationality, Its Development and Literary Expression prior to the Nineteenth Century. Cork University Press in association with Field Day, 1996.


Eamonn O Ciardha, Ireland and the Jacobite Cause, 1685-1766: A Fatal Attrachment. Dublin: Four Courts, 2002. [RES]


Katherine Simms, "Bardic Poetry as a Historical Source." The Writer as Witness: Literature as Historical Evidence. Ed. Tom Dunne. Cork: Cork UP, 1987. 58-75.


Feb. 16                 Jonathan Swift's Irish Pamphlets. Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings. Ed. Clement Hawes. New Riverside Editions.


Carole Fabricant, "Speaking for the Irish Nation: The Drapier, The Bishop, and the Problems of Colonial Representation." Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings, 465-500.


Robert Mahony, "Protestant Dependence and Consumption in Swift's Irish Writings." Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings, 501-24.



S.J. Connolly, ed. Political Ideas in Eighteenth-Century Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998. [RES]


Aileen Douglas, Patrick Kelly, and Ian Campbell Ross, eds. Locating Swift: Essays from Dublin on the 250th Anniversary of the Death of Jonathan Swift, 1667-1745. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998. [RES]


Carole Fabricant, Swift’s Landscape. Southbend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995.


Christopher Fox (ed.), The Cambridge companion to Jonathan Swift. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003. [RES]


Declan Kiberd, "Jonathan Swift: a colonial outsider." Irish Classics. Harvard University Press, 2000. 71-85. [Online Reserves]


Robert Mahony, Jonathan Swift: the Irish identity. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.


Joseph McMinn, Jonathan Swift: A Literary Life. London: MacMillan, 1991.

_____. Ed., Swift's Irish Pamphlets: An Introductory Seletion. Gerrards Cross, Bucks.: Colin Smythe, 1991.


Anna Neill, "Bucaneer Ethnography: Nature, Culture, and Nation in the Journals of William Drapier." Eighteenth-Century Studies 33,2 (2000): 165-80.


Edward Said,  "Swift as Intellectual." Jonathan Swift: Gulliver's Travels and Other Writings, 421-37.


Feb. 23                 Ní Chonaill "Lament for Art Ó Laoghaire" and Merriman "The Midnight Court." An Duanaire. Ed. O Tuama & Kinsella, and The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, Vol. IV Irish Women's Writing and Traditions 1372-84 & 242-49. [Online Reserves]

Visiting Lecturer: Prof. Joseph Nugent, English Department and Irish Studies Program, Boston College


Angela Bourke, "More in Anger than in Sorrow: Irish Women's Lament Poetry." Feminist Messages: Coding in Women's Folk Culture, University of Illinois Press, 1993. 161-82. [Online Reserves]


Declan Kiberd, "Brian Merriman's The Midnight Court." Irish Classics. Harvard University Press, 2000. 182-202. [Online Reserves]



Angela Bourke, “Introduction” in The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing:  Irish Women’s Writings and Traditions, Vol. IV, 1365-7. [RES]

_____.  The Irish Traditional Lament and the Grieving Process." Women Studies International Forum. 11.4 (1988): 287-91. [Online Reserves]

_____. "Performing–Not Writing." Graph 11 (Winter 1991092): 28-31. Shorter version of: "Performing–Not Writing: The Reception of an Irish Woman's Kament." Dwelling in Possibility: Women Poets and Critics on Poetry. Ed. Yopie Prins and Maeera Schrwiber. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1997. 132-46.


Declan Kiberd, "Eibhlín Dhubh Ní Chonaill: The Lament for Art Ó Laoghaire." Irish Classics. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2000. 161-81. [RES]


Sarah McKibben, "Angry Laments and Grieving Postcoloniality." New Voices in Irish Criticism. Ed. P.J. Matthews. Dublin: Four Courts, 2000. 215-23. [Online Reserves]


Sean O'Tuama, "Brian Merriman and His Court," Repossessions: Selected Essays on the Irish Literary Heritage. Cork: Cork UP, 1995. 63-77.



Mar. 2                  Sydney Owenson's Wild Irish Girl. Two Irish National Tales. Ed. James M. Smith. New Riversides Series.


Ina Ferris, "Narrating Cultural Encounter: Lady Morgan and the Irish National Tale." Two Irish National Tales 408-21.


Leith Davis, "Patriotism and 'woman's sentiment; in Sydney Owenson's Hibernian Melodies and The Wild Irish Girl." Music, Postcolonialism, and Gender: the construction of Irish national identity, 1724-1874. Notre Dame UP, 2006. [Online Reserves]



Claire Connolly, "'Completing the Union?' The Irish Novel and the Moment of the Union." The Irish Act of Union, 1800: Bicentennial Essays. Portland, OR: Irish Academic Press, 2002. 157-75. [Online Reserves]


Clare O'Halloran, "Irish Re-Creations of the Gaelic Past: The Challenge of Macpherson's Ossian." Past and Present 124 (1989): 69-95. [Online Reserves]

_____.  Golden Ages and Barbarous Nations: Antiquarian Debate and Cultural Politics in Ireland, c. 1750-1800. Southbend, IN.: University of Notre Dame Press in association with Field Day, 2005. [RES]


Vera Kreilkamp, "Fiction and Empire: The Irish Novel." Ireland and the British Empire. Ed. Kenny. 154-81.


Joep Leerssen, "The Burden of the Past: Romantic Ireland and Prose Fiction." Remembrance and Imagination: Patterns in the Historical and Literary Representation of Ireland in the Nineteenth Century. Southbend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press in association with Field Day, 1997. 33-67. [Online Reserves]


Mar. 9.                 Spring Break


Mar. 16               Dion Boucicault The Colleen Bawn and The Shaughraun.


Scott Boltwood, “The Ineffaceable Curse of Cain”; Race, Miscegenation, and the Victorian Staging of Irishness." Victorian Literature and Culture (2001): 383-96. [Online Reserves]


Elizabeth Butler Cullingford, “The Stage Englishman of the Irish Drama: Boucicault and the Politics of Empathy." Ireland’s Others: Ethnicity and Gender in Irish Literature and Popular Culture. Cork: Cork UP/Notre Dame, 2001. 13-36. [Online Reserves]



Dawn Duncan, Postcolonial Theory in Irish Drama From 1800-2000. Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2004. Ch.2. "Dion Boucicault: A Laugh of Rebellion." 75-122. [RES]


Nicholas Grene, "Stage Interpreters," The Politics of Irish Drama. Cambridge UP, 1999. 5-22. [Online Reserves]


John P. Harrington, The Irish play on the New York stage, 1874-1966.  Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, c1997. [RES]


Mar. 23               Emily Lawless, Grania: The Story of an Island. ONLINE Text.


Jacqueline Belanger, "The Desire of the West: The Aran Islands and Irish Identity in Grania." Ireland in the Nineteenth Century: Regional Identity. Ed. Leon Litvack and Glenn Hooper. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000. [Online Reserves]


Catherine Nash, "Embodying the Nation—The West of Ireland Landscape and Irish Identity." In Search of Ireland: A Cultural Geography. Ed. Brian Graham. New York: Routledge, 1997. 108-28. [Online Reserves]



James M. Cahalan, "Forging a Tradition:  Emily Lawless and the Irish Literary Canon." Border Crossings: Irish women writers and national identities. Edited by Kathryn Kirkpatrick. Dublin: Wolfhound Press, c2000. [Online Reserves]


David Cairns and Shaun Richards, "An Essentially Feminine Race," Writing Ireland: Colonialism, Nationalism and Culture. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988.42-57. [RES]


Siobhán Kilfeather, “Sex and Sensation in the Nineteenth Century Novel." Theorizing Ireland, Ed. Clare Connolly. New York: Palgrave, 2003. 105-13. [Online Reserves]



Mar. 30               Yeats and the Revival: Yeats and Gregory's Cathleen Ni Houlihan, Yeats' The Countess Cathleen, On Baile's Strand and Early Poems, Hyde's "The Necessity for De-Anglicizing Ireland."


P.J. Matthews, "Revival Connections," Revival: The Abbey Theatre, Sinn Féin, The Gaelic League and the Co-Operative Movement. Southbend: University of Notre Dame Press/Field Day, 2003. 5-34. [Online Reserves]


Edward Said, "Yeats and Decolonization." Nationalism, Colonialism, and Literature.  Minneaspolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990. 69-98. [Online Reserves]



Rob Doggett, "Mixing Everything Up at the Beginning: Telling Stories about Colonization in On Baile's Strand." Deep Rooted Things: Empire and Nation in the Poetry and Drama of William Butler Yeats. Southbend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006. 13-36.  [Online Reserves]


Marjorie Howes, "When the mob becomes a people: nationalism and occult theatre." Yeats's Nations.  Cambridge UP, 1996. 66-101. [Online Reserves]


Emer Nolan, "Modernism and the Irish Revival." The Cambridge Companion to Modern Irish Culture. Ed. Joe Cleary and Claire Connolly. New York: Cambridge University Press, 157-72. [RES]


James Pethica, "Yeats, folklore, and Irish legend." The Cambridge Companion to W.B. Yeats 129-43. [RES]


Apr. 6                                     Good Friday


Apr. 13                Orientalism: Yeats, Stephens, Cousins, AE.  TBD

Visiting Lecturer: Professor Joseph Lennon (Manhatten College)


Joseph Lennon, "Irish Orientalism: An Overview." Ireland and Postcolonial Theory, 129-57.


Joseph Lennon, Irish Orientalism: A literary and Intellectual History. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 2004. [RES]



Apr. 20                John Millington Synge's The Aran Islands and The Playboy of the Western World


Gregory Castle, "Synge-on-Aran: The Aran Islands and the Subject of Revivalist Ethnography." Modernism and the Celtic Revival. Cambridge UP, 2001. [Online Reserves]


Declan Kiberd, “Synge’s Tristes Tropiques: The Aran Islands.’ Irish Classics. Harvard UP, 2000. 420-39. [Online Reserves]



Luke Gibbons, "Synge, Country and Western: The Myth of the West in Irish and American Culture." Transformations in Irish Culture. Cork: Cork U. P., 1996. 23-36. [RES]


Declan Kiberd, "J. M. Synge: Remembering the Future," Inventing Ireland. Harvard UP, 1996. 166-190. [RES]


Ann Saddlemyer, "Synge's Soundscape." Interpreting Synge. Ed. Nicholas Grene. Dublin: The Lilliput Press, 2000. 177-91. [Online Reserves]



Apr. 27                Brian Friel's Translations


Martine Pelletier, "Translations, the Field Day debate and the reimagining of Irish Identity." The Cambridge Companion to Brian Friel. Ed. Anthony Roche. Cambridge UP, 2006. [Online Reserves]


Declan Kiberd, “Friel Translating,” Inventing Ireland. Harvard UP, 1996. 614-23. [Online Reserves]


Stephen Howe, "Historiography." Ireland and Postcolonial Theory, 220-50..



F.C. McGrath, Brian Friel's (post) colonial drama: Language, illusion, and politics. Syracuse UP, 1999. Ch. 8. "(De)mythology: Translations, The Communication Cord, and Field Day."  Syracuse: Syracuse UP, 1999.176-209. [RES]


Dawn Duncan, Postcolonial Theory in Irish Drama From 1800-2000. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2004.  Ch. 4. "Brian Friel: A Call to Question," 185-229. [RES]


Helen Lojek, "Brian Friel's sense of place." The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Irish Drama. Ed. Shaun Richards.  Cambridge: Cambrige UP, 2004. 177-90. [RES]


Marilynn Richtarik, "The Field Day Theatre Company." The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Irish Drama. Ed. Shaun Richards.  Cambridge: Cambrige UP, 2004. 191-203. [Online Reserves]



May 4 Study Day Class:          Eavan Boland and Nuala NiDhomhnaill. Wake Forrest Book of Irish Women's Poetry, 1967-2000.


Mills, Lia. “‘I Won’t Go Back to It:’ Irish Women Poets and the Iconic Feminine.” Feminist Review 49 (Spring 1995):69-88. [Online Reserves]


McMullen, Kim. "Decolonizing Rosaleen: Some Feminist, Nationalist, and Postcolonialist Discourses in Irish Studies." The Journal of the Midwest Modern Langauge Association 29, 1 (1996): 32-45. [Online Reserves]


Joe Cleary, "Postcolonial Ireland." Ireland the British Empire. Ed. Kenny. 251-89.


Guinn Batten, “Boland, … and the body of the nation,” The Cambridge Companion to Contemporary Irish Poetry, 169-88. [RES]


Boland, Eavan. "Outside History." Object Lessons: The Life of the Woman and the Poet in Our Time. London: Vintage. 1996. [Online Reserves]


Patricia Boyle Haberstoh, “Eavan Boland.”  Women Creating Women, Syracuse: Syracuse UP. 1995. 59-92 [RES]

_____.  “Nuala NiDhomhnaill.”  Women Creating Women, 161-96. [RES]


Catriona Clutterbuck, "Irish Women's Poetry and the Republic of Ireland: Formalism as Form." Writing in the Irish Republic: Literature, Culture, Politics 1949-1999. Ed. Ray Ryan. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000. 17-43. [RES]


Sarah Fulford, "Eavan Boland: Forging a Postcolonial Herstory." Irish and Postcolonial Writing: History, Theory, Practice. Ed. Glenn Hooper and Colin Graham. New York: Palgrave, 202-221. [RES]


Siobhan Kilfeather, "Irish Feminism." The Cambridge Companion to Modern Irish Culture. Ed. Joe Cleary and Claire Connolly. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 96-116. [Online Reserves]


Meaney, Gerardine. “Sex and Nation: Women in Irish Culture and Politics.” In A Dozen Lips. Ed. Ailbhe Smyth. Dublin: Attic Press. 1994. 188-204. [Online Reserves]