(For those available through the web, the web address is provided. If you are connected to the internet-just click on the web address)

Medication Safety

Council on Graduate Medical Education & National Advisory Council on Nurse Education and Practice. (2000). Collaborative Education to Ensure Patient safety. Report to Secretary of U. S. Department of Health and Human Services and Congress. Washington, DC:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Nursing, Division of
Medicine and Dentistry.

Kohn, L.T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M.S. (Eds). (1999). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force. (2000). Doing what counts for patient safety: Federal actions to reduce medical errors and their impact. Report of the Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force (QuIC) to the President . (http: //

Adverse Drug Effects

Burnham, J.F. (1976). Preventability of adverse drug reactions. Annals of Internal Medicine. 85(1): 80-1.

Cullen, D.J., Bates, D.W., Small, S.D., Cooper, J B., Nameskal, A.R., & Leape, L.L. (1995). The incident reporting system does not detect adverse drug events: a problem for quality improvement. Joint Commission Journa on Quality Improvement 21, 541 - 548.

Ernst, F.R .,& Grizzle, A.J. (2001). Drug-related morbidity and mortality: Updating the Cost-of-Illness Model. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 41, 192-9.

Food and Drug Administration. (1994).Testing Drugs in People -FDA Special Issue on New Drug Development. FDA Consumer (July 1994). Posted on www 12 June 1998 ( drug/testtabl.html)

GAO Report.(2000). Adverse Drug Events. The Magnitude of Health Risk is Uncertain Because of Limited Incidence Data. Washington, DC. United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO/HEHS-00-21. ( )

Glazener, F.S . (1992 ). Adverse drug reactions. In K.L.Melmon, H.F.Morrelli, B.B. Hoffman, & D. W. Nierenberg. (Eds). Melmon and Morelli's Clinical pharmacology. Basic principles in therapeutics. (3rd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goldman, S..A., Kennedy, D. L., & Lieberman, R. L. (1995). Clinical therapeutics and the recognition of drug-induced disease. A MedWatch continuing education article. Staff College, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration.

Lazarou,J., Pomeranz, B.H., & Corey, P.N. (1998). Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 279(15): 1200 -1205

Norrby, S.R. & Lietman, P.S. (1993). Safety and tolerability of fluoroquinolones. Drugs 1993 45(Suppl 3), 59 - 64.

Schneider, J. K., Mion, L.C. & Frengley, J.D. (1992). Adverse drug reactions in an elderly outpatient population. American Journal Hospital Pharmacy 49, 90 - 96.

Strom, B.L. & Tugwell, P. (1990). Pharmacoepidemiology: current status, prospects. and problems. Annals of Internal Medicine 113, 179-181.
United States Pharmacopeia .(2002) USP Dispensing Information (USPDI) (Volume I For Health Professionals and Volume II for Patients). Micromedex.

Venning, G. R. (1983).Identification of adverse reactions to new drugs II (continued): How were 18 important adverse reactions discovered and with what delays. British Medical Journal 286, 365 - 368.


Bailey, D.G., Malcom, J., Arnold, O. & Spence, J.D. (1998). Grapefruit juice interactions. British journal of Clinical Pharmacology 46(2): 101-10.

Becker, R.C, Carrao, J. M.., Baker, SP, et al. (1988). Circadian variation in thrombolytic response to recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Applied Cardiology 3: 213-221.

Bourian, M./, Runkel, M., Krisp, A., Tegtmeier, M., Freudenstein, J. & Legrum, W. (1999). Naringenin and interindividual variability in interactions of coumarin with grapefruit juice. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 51(4-5): 289-93.

Chan, W. K., Nguyen, L. T., Miller, V. P., & Harris, R. Z. (1998). Mechanism-based inactivation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 by grapefruit juice and red wine. Life Sciences 62(10): PL 135-42.

Cupps, M.J. & Tracy, T.S. (1998). Cytochrome P450: New nomenclature and clinical implications. American Family Physician January 1, 1998. (

Dresser, G.K., Bailey, D. G., & Carruthers, S.G. (2000). Grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction in the elderly. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 68(1): 28-34.

Dresser, G.K., Spence, J.D., & Bailey, D. G. (2000). Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences amd clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 38(1): 41-57.

Fukuda, K., Guo, L., Ohashi, N., Yoshikawa, M. & Yamazoe, Y. (2000). Amounts and variation in grapefruit juice of the main components causing grapefruit-drug interaction. J. Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2000 May 12 74(2): 195-203.

Gupta, M.C., Garg, S.K., Badyal, D., Malhotra, S., & Bhargava, V. K. (1999). Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in healthy male volunteers. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 21(10): 679-82.

Ho, P.C., Ghose,K., Saville, D. & Wanwimolruk, S. (2000). Effect of grapefruit juice on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil enantiomers in healthy volunteers. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 56(9-10): 683-8.

Lanuza, D.M. (1993). Circadian rhythms: Implications for cardiovascular nursing and drug therapy. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 8(1): 63-79.

Libersa, C.C., Brique, S. A., Motte, K.B., Caron, J.F., Guedon-Moreau, L. M., Humbert, L., Vincent, A., Devos, P., & Lhermitte, M. A. (2000). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 49(4): 373-8.

Leipzig, R.M. (2001). Keys to maximizing benefit while avoiding adverse drug effects. Geriatrics 56(2), 30 –34.

Lilja, J.J, Kivisto, K.T., Backman, J.T. & Neuvonen, P. J. (2000). Effect of grapefruit dose on grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction: Repeated consumption prolongs half-life. EuropeanJournal of Clinical Pharmacology 56(5): 411-5.

Lilja, J.J., Kivisto, K.T., & Neuvoen, P.J. (2000). Duration of effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A4 substrate simvastin. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 68(4): 384-90.

Meyer, U.A. (1994). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United states of America 91(6) (March 15, 1994), 1983-1984. Retrieved from JSTOR on 11/09/01

Prows, D.R. & Prows, C.A. (1998). Optimizing drug therapy based on genetic differences: Implications for the clinical setting. AACN Clinical Issues 9(4): 490-512.

Noel, H. C., Saunders, E, & Smolensky, M.H. (2000). Hypertension, chronotherapy, and patient management. The Nurse Practitioner Mrach 2000 Supplement to The Nurse Practitioner 25(3): 1 –10.

Turkowski, B.B. (1998). Medication timing for the elderly: The impact of biorhythms on effectiveness. Geriatric Nursing 19(3) :146-151.

Varis, T., Kivisto, K. T., & Neuvonen, P.J. (2000). Grapefruit juice can increase the plasma concentrations of oral methylprednisolone. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 56(6-7): 489-93.

Zaidenstein, R., Soback, S, Gips, M., Avni, B., Dishi, V., Weissgarten, Y., Golik, A. & Scarpa.E. (2001). Effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of losartan and its active metabolite E3174 in health volunteers. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 23(4): 369-73.