IACOVIELLO: GEOPOLITICAL RISK INDEX
Dario Caldara and Matteo Iacoviello construct a monthly index of Geopolitical Risk (GPR Index) counting the
occurrence of words related to geopolitical tensions in leading
international newspapers. The GPR index spikes around the Gulf War,
after 9/11, during the 2003 Iraq invasion, during the 2014
Russia-Ukraine crisis, and after the Paris terrorist attacks.
The Benchmark Index (GPR) uses 11 newspapers and starts in 1985.
The Historical Index (GPRH) uses 3 newspapers and starts in 1899.
This is work in progress. We welcome kudos, comments and suggestions!
Cite as: Caldara, Dario and Matteo Iacoviello, “Measuring Geopolitical Risk," working paper, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Board, August
A summary presentation in our slides (August 2017).
DATA updated through the end of August 2017 (and including preliminary
September 2017 data using searches until September 10th) can be found here [ last update: Sep11,2017 ]
data also include (beta-version) country-specific GPR indices for 18 emerging
economies (Caldara, Iacoviello and Aaron Markiewitz, "Country-Specific
The main data are updated for each month around the 10th of the following month.
Some citations of the index:
(1) Die Welt (August 2016)
(2) Mark Carney, Bank of England; (September 2016)
(3) Kristin Forbes, Bank of England; (November 2016)
(4) ECB 2017 Economic Bulletin; (April 2017)
(5) ZeroHedge; (May 2017)
(6) National Minimum Wages Commission of Mexico (June 2017)
(7) Mark Carney, Bank of England; (June 2017)
(8) Policy Uncertainty Website; (July 2017)
(9) Allianz Economic Insight (July 2017)
(10) Moody's Analytics Macro Press, Volume 22, Number 4 (July 2017)
(11) Business Insider "The world is now more unstable than during the Vietnam War" (July 7, 2017)
(12) BOA/Merrill Lynch Weekly Newsletter ("Geopolitical Risk Index has been on the rise", August 2017)
(13) State Street Global Advisors ("Goldilocks and Three Potential Bears" August 2017)
Detailed description of the GPR index
The Caldara and Iacoviello GPR index reflects
automated text-search results of the electronic archives of 11 national
and international newspapers: The Boston Globe, Chicago Tribune, The
Daily Telegraph, Financial Times, The Globe and Mail, The Guardian, Los
Angeles Times, The New York Times, The Times, The Wall Street Journal,
and The Washington Post. Caldara and Iacoviello calculate the index by
counting the number of articles related to geopolitical risk in each
newspaper for each month (as a share of the total number of news
articles). The index is then normalized to average a value of 100 in
the 2000-2009 decade.
The search identifies articles containing
references to six groups of words: Group 1 includes words associated
with explicit mentions of geopolitical risk, as well as mentions of
military-related tensions involving large regions of the world and a
U.S. involvement. Group 2 includes words directly related to nuclear
tensions. Groups 3 and 4 include mentions related to war threats and
terrorist threats, respectively. Finally, Groups 5 and 6 aim at
capturing press coverage of actual adverse geopolitical events (as
opposed to just risks) which can be reasonably expected to lead to
increases in geopolitical uncertainty, such as terrorist acts or the
beginning of a war.
Based on the search groups above,
Caldara and Iacoviello further disentangle the direct effect of adverse
geopolitical events from the effect of pure geopolitical risks by
constructing two indexes. The Geopolitical Threats (GPT) index only
includes words belonging to Search groups 1 to 4 above. The
Geopolitical Acts (GPA) index only includes words belonging to Search
groups 5 and 6.
Our (preliminary) audit guidelines can be found here