E-mail: clarke@bc.edu



Research in Dr. Clarke's laboratory focused on the interactions of transition metal ions with biologically important molecules and applied the knowledge learned to the development of metallopharmaceuticals. For example, glutathione, which occurs in millimolar concentrations in cells, can either facilitate or hinder DNA binding by transition metal anticancer agents. Transferrin, which transports Fe3+ in the blood, also serves as a Trojan horse to provide some metal ions, such as Ru3+, preferential entry into tumor cells. Some ruthenium complexes appear to be selectively toxic to tumors by being activated by reduction by the tumor itself to bind to nucleic acids. Ruthenium complexes induce new modes of hydrolysis and oxidation, which may cut or otherwise damage DNA. The paramagnetism of RuIII also affects the NMR resonances of coordinated nucleotides so as to probe molecular orbital interactions. Applying sensitive electrochemical techniques to Ru-DNA adducts reveals that this metal can migrate within the DNA as a function of its oxidation state. Such interactions point toward the development of new transition metal agents bound to transferrin and then activated by the tumor to interfere with its DNA metabolism and possibly induce cell death by apoptosis.

Metallonitrosyls can be used as prodrugs for the in vivo release of nitric oxide, which exhibits many functions in the body including those as: a neurotransmitter, an enzyme activant, and a cytotoxic agent.

Dr. Clarke's laboratory showed that ruthenium nitrosyl complexes can release NO in vivo and so possibly affect the biological activities mediated by this molecule, particularly those involving short term memory in the hippocampal section of the brain.

Earlier work in Dr. ClarkeÕs laboratory also involved the coordination of ruthenium ammine ions to coenzymes such as flavins and vitamin-C.

Professor Clarke retired in 2013 and can be reached at Clarke@bc.edu. Many of his publications are available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Clarke15.




Krogh-Jespersen, K.; Stibrany, R. T.; John, E.; Westbrook, J. D.; Emge, T. J.; Clarke, M. J.; Potenza, J. A.; Schugar, H. J., Solid-State Changes in Ligand-to-Metal Charge-Transfer Spectra of (NH3)5RuIII(2,4-dihydroxybenzoate) and (NH3)5RuIII(xanthine) Chromophores. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, (21), 9813-9827


Holanda, A. K. M.; da Silva, F. O. N.; Sousa, J. R.; Diogenes, I. C. N.; Carvalho, I. M. M.; Moreira, I. S.; Clarke, M. J.; Lopes, L. G. F., Photochemical NO release from nitrosyl RuII complexes with C-bound imidazoles. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2008, 361, (9-10), 2929-2933


1.     Haney, W.; Clarke, M.J., ŅCheating on Tests:  Prevalence, Detection, and Implications for Online TestingÓ, book chapter in Psychological Perspectives on Academic Cheating, Anderman, E.A. and Murdock, T., eds, 2007, Elsevier, San Diego.


2.     Lopes, L. G. F., Castellano, E. E., Ferreira, A. G., Davanzo, C. U., Clarke, M. J., & Franco, D. W., ŅReactivity of trans-[Ru(NH3)4P(OEt)3NO]X3 (X = PF6-, CF3COO-): modulation of the release of NO by the trans-effectÓ, 2005, Inorganica Chimica Acta, 358(10), 2883-2890.


3.     Clarke, M. J., "Ruthenium Metallopharmaceuticals", Coord. Chem. Rev., 2002, 232, 69-93; updated 2003, 236, 207-231.


4.     Marcondes, Fabiana G.; Ferro, Alessander A.; Souza-Torsoni, Adriana; Sumitani, Marie; Clarke, Michael J.; Franco, Douglas W.; Tfouni, Elia; Krieger, Marta H.  ŅIn vivo effects of the controlled NO donor/scavenger ruthenium cyclam complexes on blood pressureÓ,    Life Sciences,  2002,  70,  2735-2752.


5.     Lopes, Luiz G.F.;  Wieraszko, A., El-Sherif, Y.; Clarke, Michael J., "Trans-Labilization of Nitric Oxide in RuII Complexes by C-Bound Imidazoles", Inorganica Chimica Acta, 2001, 312, 15-22.


6.     Frasca, D.R.; Gehrig, L.E.; Clarke, M.J., ŅCellular Effects of Transferrin Coordinated to [Cl(NH3)5Ru]Cl2 and cis-[Cl2(NH3)4Ru]Cl.Ó J. Inorg. Biochem., 2001, 83, 139-149.


7.     Wieraszko, A.; Clarke, M.J.; Lang, D.R.; Lopes, L.G.F.; Franco, D. W., "The Influence of NO-Containing Ruthenium Complexes on Mouse Hippocampal Evoked Potentials in vitro", Life Sciences 2001, 68, 1535-1544.


8.     LaChance-Galang, K.J.; Maldonado, I.; M. Gallagher, M.L.; Jian, W.; Prock, A.; Galang, R.D.; Chaklos, J.; Clarke, M.J., "Terpsichorean Movements of Pentaammineruthenium on Pyrimidine and Isoytosine Ligands", Inorganic Chemistry, 2001, 40,  485-492


9.     Lang,D.R.; Davis, J.A.; Lopes, L.G.F.; Ferro, A.A.; Vasconcellos, L.C.G.; Franco, D.W.; Tfouni, E.; Wieraszko, A. and Clarke, M.J., "A Controlled NO-Releasing Compound: Synthesis, molecular structure, spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and chemical reactivity of (R,R,S,S)trans-[RuCl(NO)(cyclam)]2+ (1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane)", Inorganic Chemistry, 2000, 39, 2294-2300.


10.  Frasca., D.R; Clarke, M.J., "Alterations in the Binding of [Cl(NH3]5RuIII]2+ to DNA by Glutathione: Reduction, Autoxidation, Coordination, and Decomposition", Journal of the American Chemical Society 1999, 121, 8523-8532.


11.  Clarke, M. J., Zhu, F., Frasca, D.,  "Non-Platinum Chemotherapeutic Metallopharmaceuticals,"  Chemical Reviews 1999, 99, 2511-2533.


12.  Zhao, M.; Clarke, M. J., "Trans-Pyridine Tetraammine Complexes of RuII and RuIII with N7-Coordninated Purine Nucleosides", Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 1999, 4, 318-324.


13.  Zhao, M.; Clarke, M. J., "Effects of Trans-Pyridine Ligands on the Binding and Reactivity of RuII and RuIII Ammine Complexes Coordinated to Guaninek7 on DNA,"  Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 1999, 4, 325-340.


14.  Clarke, M.J., "Ruthenium in Biology:  DNA Interactions" in Electron Transfer Reactions, ACS Symposium Series,  1997, Isied, S., ed. Ch. 21, pp. 349-365.


15.  Rodriguez-Bailey, V.M.; LaChance-Galang, K.J.; Doan, P.E.; Clarke, M.J., "1H and 31P NMR and EPR of Pentaammine­ruthenium(III) Complexes of Endocyclically Coordinated Nucleotides, Nucleosides and Related Heterocyclic Bases.  Autoxidation of [(GuanosinekN7)(NH3)5RuIII].  Crystal Structure of [7MeGuakN9(NH3)5Ru]Cl3„3H2O.Ó, Inorganic Chemistry, 1997, 36,  1873-1883.


16.  Rodriguez-Bailey, V.M.; Doan, P.E.; Clarke, M.J., 1H and 31P NMR of Pentaammineruthenium(III) Complexes of Exocyclically-Coordinated Adenine and Cytosine Ligands.  Evidence for Rotamers with Distinct AciditiesÓ, Inorganic Chemistry, 1997, 36,  1611-1618.


17.  Frasca., D.; Ciampa, J.; Emerson, J.; Umans, R.S.; Clarke, M.J., "Effects of Hypoxia and Transferrin on Toxicity and DNA  Binding of Ruthenium Antitumor Agents in HeLa Cells", Metal-Based Drugs, 1996, 3, 197-209.


18.  LaChance-Galang, K.J.; Zhao, M.; and Clarke, M.J., "Disproportionation of [(py)(NH3)4RuIII] at the N7 of Guanine Nucleosides Severs the N-Glycosidic Bond, Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35,  6021-6026.


19.  Clarke, M.J.; Bailey, V.; Doan, P.; Hiller, C.; LaChance-Galang, K.J. ; Daghlian, H.;  Mandal, S.; Bastos, C. M.; Lang, D., "1H NMR, EPR, UV-Visible and Electrochemical Studies of Imidazole Complexes of Ru(III).  Crystal Structures of cis-[(Im)2(NH3)4RuIII]Br3 and [(1MeIm)6RuII]Cl2„2H2O", Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 4896-4903.


20.  Clarke, M.J. and Stubbs, M., "Interactions of Metallopharmaceuticals with DNA", Metal Ions in Biological Systems, 1996, 32, 727-780.


21.  LaChance-Galang, K.J.; Doan, P.E.; Clarke, M.J.; Rao, U.;  Yamano, A. Hoffman, B. M., "EPR and NMR Spectra as Probes of Spin-Density Distributions in Heterocyclic Ligands Coordinated in trans-[L(Im)(NH3)4RuIII]:  Implications for Long Range Electron Transfer.  Crystal Structure of trans-[(Im)2(NH3)4Ru]Cl3„H2O"Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1995, 117, 3529-3538.


22.  Clarke, M.J. and Limauro, S., "Metal-Containing Anticancer Agents", Handbook on Metal-Ligand Interactions in Biological Fluids, Bioinorganic Chemistry, Vol. 2., Guy Berthon, editor, 1995, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1010-1019.


23.  Emerson, J.; Clarke, M.J.; Ying, W-L.; Sanadi, D.R., "The Component of "Ruthenium Red" Responsible for Inhibition of Mitochondrial Calcium Ion Transport.  Spectra, Electrochemistry and Aquation Kinetics. Crystal Structure of µ-O-[(HCO2)(NH3)4Ru]2Cl3",  J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 11799-11805.


24.  Clarke, M.J., "Ruthenium Complexes:  Potential Roles in Anticancer Pharmaceuticals", in "Metal Complexes in Cancer Chemotherapy", Keppler, B.K., ed., VCH Publishing House, Heidelberg, 1993, pp. 129-156.


25.  Johnson, A.; O'Connell, L. and Clarke, M.J., "N7 and C8 Coordinated  Purine Complexes of [(NH3)5OsIII].  Crystal Structures of 7-[9MeHyp(NH3)5Os]Cl3„H2O and 8-[1,3,7Me3Xan(NH3)5Os]Cl3„2H2O", Inorganica Chimica Acta, 1993, 210, 151-157.


26.  Clarke, M.J. and Gaul, J.B., "Chemistry Relevant to the Biological Effects of Nitric Oxide and Metallonitrosyls", Structure and Bonding, 1993, 81, 147-181.


27.  Lu, J.; Hiller, C.D. and Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis and Electrochemistry of µ-Oxo Technetium Complexes with Bipyridine and Halide Ligands.  Crystal Structures of µ-O-[X(bpy)2Tc]2X2„bpy (X = Cl, Br) and µ-O-[Cl(phen)2Tc]2Cl2", Inorganic Chemistry, 1993, 32, 1417-1423


28.  McNamara, M.; Clarke, M.J. "Coordination of Pentaammineruthenium to RNA:  Spectra, Equilibria, Kinetics and Electrochemistry",  Inorganica Chemica Acta, 1992, 195, 175-185.


29.  Clarke, M.J.; Lu, Jun, "Synthesis and Spectra of cis-[NCl(phen)2Tc]Cl„H2O and  cis-[NCl(phen)2Tc]PF6 and Considerations of Their Structural Distortions", Inorganic Chemistry, 1992, 31, 2476-2480.


30.  Lu, J. and Clarke, M.J., "Modulation of Tc-NX (X = O,S) Bonds by ¹-Acceptor Ligands.  Comparison of the Crystal Structures of cis–[(SN)Cl(phen)2Tc]PF6 and cis–[(ON)(H3N)(phen)2Tc](PF6)„(CH3)2CO", Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, 1992, 1243-1248.


31.  Ying, W-L.; Emerson, J.; Clarke, M.J.; Sanadi, D.R., "Inhibition of Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transport by an Oxo-bridged Dinuclear Ruthenium Ammine Complex",  Biochemistry, 1991, 30, 4949-4952.


32.  Lu, J.; Clarke, M.J., "Sulfur Atom Transfer with Reduction of a [TcVI=N]3+ Core  to a [TcI–N=S]2+ Core.  Crystal Structure of mer-[Cl2(SN)(4-Picoline)3Tc]."  Inorganic Chemistry, 1990, 29, 4123-26.


33.  Lu, J.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis and Reaction Mechanisms of Technetium(V) Complexes with Nitrogen Heterocycles", in "Technetium and Rhenium in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine 3", Nicolini, M.; Bandoli, G.; Mazzi, U. (ed), Raven Press, NY, 1990, 23-29.


34.  Lu, J.; Yamano, A.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis and Characterization of Technetium(III) Complexes with Nitrogen Heterocycles by O-Atom Transfer from Oxo-Tc(V)  Cores.  Crystal Structures of mer-[Cl3(Picoline)3Tc] and mer-[Cl3(Picoline)(PMe2Ph)2Tc].  Electrochemical Parameters for the Reduction of TcII, TcIII and TcIV."  Inorganic Chemistry, 1990, 29, 3483-87.


35.  Abelleira, A.; Galang, R.D.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis and Electrochemistry of Pterins Coordinated to Tetraammineruthenium(II)", Inorganic Chemistry, 1990, 29, 633-639.


36.  Pell, S.D.; Sherban, M.M.; Tramontano, V.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis of cis-[Cl2(NH3)4Ru]Cl2 and cis-[Br2(NH3)4Ru]Br2", Inorganic Synthesis, 1989, 26, 65-68.


37.  Clarke, M.J., "Ruthenium Chemistry Pertaining to the Design of Anticancer Agents", in "Ruthenium and other Non-Platinum Metal Complexes in Cancer Chemotherapy", Volume 10 of Progress in Clinical Biochemistry and Medicine, M.J. Clarke, editor, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1989, pp. 25-39.


38.  Lu, Jun; Clarke, M.J., "Substitution Kinetics of trans-[O2(py)4Tc]+, py = pyridine, picoline, and lutidine", Inorganic Chemistry, 1989, 28, 2315-19.


39.  Gariepy, K.C.; Curtin, M.A.; Clarke, M.J., "Autoxidation of Pentaammineruthenium(III) Nucleoside Complexes:  Xanthine Oxidase Activity in a Simple Compound without Oxo Atom Transfer", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1989, 111, 4947-52.


40.  Marx, K.A.; Kruger, R.; Clarke, M.J. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 1989, 86, 155-162.  "Binding of the Transition Metal Ion [(H2O)(NH3)5Ru]2+ to Nucleosomal and Internucleosomal DNA."


41.  Lu, Jun; Clarke, M.J., "Dinuclear Formation, Oxygen Atom Transfer and Intramolecular Coordination Isomerization in Oxo-Technetium Complexes", Inorganic Chemistry 1988, 27, 4761-4766.


42.  Clarke, M.J.; Kastner, M.E.; Podbielski, L.A.; Fackler, P.H.; Schreifels, J.; Meinken, G.; Srivastava, S.C., "Low Symmetry, Mixed-Valent, µ-Oxo Technetium Complexes with Pyridine and Halide Ligands",  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1988, 110, 1818-1827.


43.  Bryan, D.M.; Pell, S.D.; Kumar, R.; Clarke, M.J., Rodriguez, V.; Sherban, M., Charkoudian, J., "Stable Pentaammineruthenium(III) Complexes of Reductic Acids:  Synthesis, Linkage Isomers and Autoxidation Kinetics"  Journal of the American Chemical Society 1988, 110, 1498-1506.


44.  Clarke, M.J.; Galang, R.G.; Rodriguez, V.M.; Kumar, R.; Pell, S.; Bryan, D.M., "Chemical Considerations in the Design of Ruthenium Anticancer Agents", in "Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherpy", M. Nicolini, editor, Kluwer Publishing, Boston, 1987, pp. 582-600.


45.  Clarke, M.J. and Podbielski, L., "Technetium", in the "Handbook on the Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds", Seiler, H.G. and Sigel, H., Eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, 1988, 665-667.


46.  Clarke, M.J. and Podbielski, L., "Medical Diagnostic Imaging with Complexes of 99mTc", Coord. Chem. Rev., 1987, 78, 253-331.


47.  Clarke, M.J.; Podbielski, L.; Kastner, M.E.; Fackler, P.H., "Oxo Technetium Complexes with Pyridine and Halide Ligands", in "Technetium in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine", Nicolini, M.; Bandoli, G.; Mazzi, U., Ed., 1987, Raven Press, New York, pp. 29-35.


48.  LalibertŽ, J.F.; Sun, I.L.; Crane, F.L; Clarke, M.J.,  "Ruthenium Ammine Complexes as Electron Acceptors for Growth Stimulation by Plasma Membrane Electron Transport", Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 1987, 19, 69-81.


49.  Kastner, M.E.; Fackler, P.H.; Charkoudian, J.; Podbielski, L.; Charkoudian, J.;  Clarke, M.J., "A Dissymmetric m-Oxo Technetium Complex", Inorganica Chemica Acta, 1986, 114, L11-15.


50.  Clarke, M.J.; Jansen, B.; Marx, K.A.; Kruger, R., "Biochemical Effects of Binding [(H2O)(NH3)5RuII]2+ to DNA  and Oxidation to [(NH3)5RuIII]n-DNA", Inorganica Chemica Acta, 1986, 124, 13-28.


51.  Margalit, R.; Gray, H.B.; Podbielski, L.; Clarke, M.J., "Chemical and Biological Properties of Pentaammine­ruthenium-Bleomycin Complexes", Chemico-Biological Interactions, 1986, 59, 231-245.


52.  Clarke, M.J., "The Chemistry of Ruthenium Compounds in Potential Anticancer Agents" in "Precious Metals 1985:  Proceedings of the Ninth International Precious Metals Conference", E.E. Zysk and J.A. Bonucci,  Eds.,  Int. Precious Metals Inst., Allentown, PA, 1986, 369-386.


53.  Kastner, M.E.; Fackler, P.H.; Lindsay, M.J.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis and Structure of trans-[O2(Im)4Tc]Cl.2H2O, trans-[O2(1-meIm)4Tc]Cl.3H2O and Related Compounds", Inorganica Chimica Acta, 1985, 109, 39-49.


54.  Kastner, M.E.; Fackler, P.H.; Clarke, M.J.; Deutsch, E., "Synthesis and Structure of trans-[O2(4-TBP)4Tc]+  (TBP = 4-tert-butylpyridine) and Related Complexes", Inorganic Chemistry, 1984, 23, 4683-4688.


55.  Fackler, P.H.; Kastner, M.E.; Clarke, M.J., "Synthesis, Spectra and Structure of af-dibromo-b-ethoxo-d-oxo-ce-bis(4-nitropyridine)technetium(V) and Related Complexes", Inorganic Chemistry, 1984, 23, 3968-3972.


56.  Pell, S.J.; Salmonsen, R.; Abelliera, A.; Clarke, M.J., "Induced Electron Transfer in Ammineruthenium Catechol and Quinone Complexes", Inorganic Chemistry, 1984, 23, 385-387.


57.  Benecky, M.J.; Dowling, M.G.; Clarke, M.J.; Spiro, T.G., "Resonance Raman Spectra and Structure of Flavins Bound to [(NH3)5Ru(II)]", Inorganic Chemistry, 1984, 23, 865-869.


58.  Clarke, M.J., Morrissey, P.E., "Nucleoside Oxidation and Hydrolysis of a Metallonucleoside Complex", Inorganica Chimica Acta, 1984, 80, L69-70.


59.  Clarke, M.J., "Electrochemical Effects of Metal Ion Coordination to Non-Innocent, Biologically Important Ligands", Comments in Inorganic Chemistry, 1984, 3, 131-151.


60.  Clarke, M.J., "Ruthenium Anticancer Agents and Relevant Reactions of Ruthenium-Purine Complexes" in "Chemistry and Biochemistry of Platinum, Gold and Other Chemotherapeutic Agents", Lippard, S.J., Ed., ACS Symposium Series #209, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1983, pp. 335-354.


61.  Dowling, M.G. and Clarke, M.J., "Electrochemistry of Metalloflavin Complexes in Dimethylformamide", Inorganica Chemica Acta, 1983, 78, 153-160.


62.  Clarke, M.J.; Kastner, M.E.; Lindsay, M.J., "Synthesis Structure and Chemistry of trans-[O2(en)2Tc(V)]+", Inorganic Chemistry, 1982, 21, 2037-2040.


63.  Clarke, M.J.; Perpall, H.; Coffey, K.E., "Analysis of the Hydrolysis of Metallonucleoside Complexes  by HPLC", Analytical Biochemistry, 1982, 122, 404-411.


64.  Clarke, M.J. and Dowling, M.G., "Electrochemistry of N5- Metallated Flavins in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Media" in "Proceedings of the Seventh International Flavin Symposium", Massey, V. and Williams, C. Eds., Elsevier, NY, 1982, pp. 579-583.


65.  Clarke, M.J., and Fackler, P.H., "The Chemistry of Technetium:  Toward Improved Diagnostic Agents",  Structure and Bonding, 1982, 50, 57-78.


66.  Barr, R.; Crane, F.L.; Clarke, M.J., "Ruthenium Complexes as Electron Acceptors in Photosystem I of Spinach Chloroplasts", Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci., 1982, 91, 114-119.


67.  Kastner, M.E.; Coffey, K.F.; Clarke, M.J.; Edmonds, S.E.; and Eriks, K., "Structural Correlations and Metal Ion Movement in Stable Pentaammineruthenium Complexes",  Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1981, 103, 5747-5752.


68.  Clarke, M.J. and Dowling, M.G., "Cyclic Voltammetry Studies of Metalloflavin Complexes in Aqueous Solution", Inorganic Chemistry, 1981, 20, 3506-3514.


69.  Clarke, M.J.; Dowling, M.G.; Garafalo, A.F.; Brennan, T.F., "Structural and Electronic Effects Resulting from Metal Flavin Ligation", Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1980, 255, 3472-3481.


70.  Clarke, M.J., "Electrochemistry of Transition Metal Complexes with Flavin Nucleosides and Their Constituent Bases", Reviews in Inorganic Chemistry, 1980, 2, 27-52.


71.  Clarke, M.J., "Mutagenicity and Modes of Metal Binding to Nucleic Acids", Inorganic Chemistry, 1980, 19, 1103.


72.  Clarke, M.J., "Oncological Implications of the Chemistry of Ruthenium", Metal Ions in Biological Systems, 1980, 11, 231-283.


73.  Clarke, M.J., "The Potential of Ruthenium in Anticancer Pharmaceuticals: in "Inorganic Chemistry in Biology and Medicine", Martell, A.E., Ed., ACS Symposium Series #190, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980, pp. 157-180.


74.  Clarke, M.J.; Bitler, S.; Rennert, D.; Buchbinder, M.; Kelman, A.D., "Reduction and Subsequent Binding of Ruthenium Ions Catalyzed by Subcellular Components", Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 1980, 12, 79-87.


75.  Yasbin, R.E.; Matthews, C.R.; Clarke, M.J., "Mutagenic and Toxic Effects of Ruthenium", Chemical and Biological Interactions, 1980, 30, 355-365.


76.  Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, A.; Rasey, J.S.; Dowling, M.G. and Clarke, M.J., "Evaluation of Radiolabaeled Ruthenium Compounds as Tumor Localizing Agents", in "Radiopharmaceuticals II", Sorensen, J.A., Ed., Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1979, pp. 265-269.


77.  Clarke, M.J.; Dowling, M.G.; Brennan, T.F.; Garafalo, A.F., "Electrochemistry, Spectra and Synthesis of a Stable Enantiomeric Metalloflavin Complex", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1979, 101, 223-225.


78.  Clarke, M.J.; Buchbinder, M.; Kelman, A.D., "Binding of Pentaammineruthenium(III) to Double-Helical and Single-Stranded DNA", Inorganica Chemica Acta, 1978, 27, L87-L88.


79.  Clarke, M.J., "Electrochemistry, Spectra and Synthesis of Pentaammineruthenium Complexes with Cytidine, Adenosine and Related Ligands", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1978, 100, 5068-5075.


80.  Clarke, M.J., "Linkage Isomers of Pentaammineruthenium Hypoxanthine Complexes", Inorganic Chemistry, 1977, 16, 738-744.


81.  Kelman, A.D.; Clarke, M.J.; Edmonds, S.D.; Peresie, H.J., "Biological Activity of Ruthenium Purine Complexes", Journal of Clinical Hematology and Oncology, 1977, 7, 274-288.


82.  Clarke, M.J. and Taube, H., "Nitrogen and Carbon Bound Xanthine Complexes with Ruthenium Ammines", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1975, 97, 1397-1403.


83.  Krentzien, H.; Clarke, M.J. and Taube, H., "Crystal Structure of a Compound Featuring Caffeine Bound at C8 to Ruthenium(III)", Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1975, 4, 143-151.


84.  Clarke, M.J. and Taube, H., "Pentaammineruthenium-Guanine Complexes", Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1974, 96, 5413-5419.


85.  Clarke, M.J. and Venezky, D.L., "Teflon Mixing Vial for Handling Solids for Infrared Spectroscopy", Journal of Chemical Education, 1969, 46, 458.


Edited Books


1.     Clarke, M. J. in "Ruthenium and Other Non-Platinum Metal Complexes in Cancer Chemotherapy"; Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany, 1989.

2.     Clarke, M. J. (ed), Less Common Metals in Proteins and Nucleic Acid Probes, Springer, Heidelberg, 1998.

3.     Clarke, M. J.; Sadler, P. J. Topics in Biological Inorganic Chemistry 1999, 2, 216. Metallopharmaceuticals II:  Diagnosis & Therapy.

4.     Clarke, M. J.; Sadler, P. J. Topics in Biological Inorganic Chemistry 1999, 1, 200. Metallopharmaceuticals I:  DNA Interactions.


Recognitions and Honors

Professional:           NSF Program Director for Inorganic, Bioinorganic and Organometallic Chemistry, 2001-2004.  Program Officer, 1996-7.

                              Program Director, Nanotechnology in Undergraduate Education, 2002-2004

Co-chair, Metals in Medicine Gordon Research Conference 2002

                              NIH Biometallic Study Section Member 1991-1995; 1988-91, 1998-99 ad hoc

                              Secretary Division of Inorganic Chemistry, American Chemical Society 1995-98

                              Editor, Structure and Bonding.  1984-1999,

                              Editor, Topics in Bioinorganic Chemistry, 1999-present

                              Editor, Metal-Based Drugs, 1992-2000

                              Whiting Foundation Fellow, 1984

                              NIH Young Investigator Grant Award, 1978-1981

Graduate:                Phi Lambda Upsilon, Chemical Honorary Society

Undergraduate:       Phi Beta Kappa, Hillebrand Jr. Award, Sigma Xi Award, AIC Medali