HS 020 European Social and Political Evolution

                                    Lecturer: Roberta T. Manning             Discussion Leaders: Ed Rugemer
                                                     165 Carney Hall                                                             102 McGuinn
                                                    voice mail- x2-3795                                               voice mail- x2-3779 box 2
                                                    manning@bc.edu                                          rugemer@bc.edu
                                            Office Hours:
                              Tues. and Thurs. 11:00-12:30
                                                                                      Anthony King
                                                                                                                    102 McGuinn
                                                                                                                    voice mail: x2-3266 box 1

                    Purpose of this Course:

                                    This course provides a survey of European history from the unstable aftermath of the French Revolution to the present day. It satisfies the second semester of the university's CORE history requirement. The class explores the political restructuring of first Western Europe, then Russia and later the Third World under the pressures of the modern population explosion and the industrial revolution. We then go on to examine the political outcome of these developments: the emergence of the national security state at the end of the nineteenth century, a state engaged in the constant preparation for war. The national security state gave rise to the World Wars, the Cold War, and the rash of wars that have followed the end of the Cold War. We will pay special attention to gender relations, political and industrial revolutions, militarism, the New Imperialism, the World Wars, Communism, Fascism, political terror, the Cold War, European economic integration, and "the social market economy," the unique form of capitalism that evolved in Western Europe after World War.

                                   Required Readings:

                                    a. Students should plan to purchase the following works (copies of all of these works have been places on reserve at the                                           O'Neill Library):

                                        Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto
                                        Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost
                                        Jonathan Glover, Humanity: A Moral History of the Twentieth Century
                                        Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution
                                        Argueta, One Day of Life
                                    b. The additional readings for this course are found in my Professor's file in the folder labeled HS 020:

                                        Reading 1. Women in the French Revolution
                                        Reading 2. The Industrial Revolution
                                        Reading 3. Women's Revolt (the Women's Suffrage Movement)
                                        Reading 4. The Russian Revolution: Brezhnev's Childhood
                                        Reading 5. The Great Depression: Nazi and Communist Solutions
                                        Reading 6. World War II as Total War
                                        Reading 7. Europe After the Cold War: Economic Integration and the Social Market Economy

                                    c. Students are also required to see the following videos ( shown on the campus                                     history department TV-channel
                                        and on reserve in the O'Neill Media Center):

                                        "Working Lives" (documentary on the Industrial Revolution 20 minutes) required
                                        "Slaughter" (World War I - 60 minutes) required
                                        "Ten Days that Shook the World" Eisenstein
                                        "The Goths Ride East" 120 minute documentary on Hitler's invasion of Russia
                                                 OR "The Cauldron Boils" about the Battle of Stalingrad, the turning point
                                                                of World War II in Europe.
                                        "Dr. Strangelove" (Or "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb") (1964), a
                                               Cold War comedy is required and will be shown in class..

                                    d. Internet Resources (OPTIONAL): See my BC History Department Website
                                       (http://www2.bc.edu/~manning/). This website gives you access to other websites related to this course. You can access these sites via a list of CORE topics (Women's Suffrage, the Cold War, etc.). Each topic has one or more interesting websites listed which can be accessed by clicking on them. These will allow you to experience the lives of ordinary people during the Industrial Revolutions and tour the macabre British Command Post for the Waging of Nuclear War, now a Cold War Museum to the accompanying wail of air raid sirens. You can also break windows, chain yourselves to the front porch of the Prime Minister, go to jail with the British suffragists. You can explore the personal lives of the Soviet aviation aces of World War II, read the secret correspondence between Kennedy and Khrushchev that saved the world from nuclear war during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and prescribe various treatments (including shots of vodka) to the long-ailing former Russian President Boris Yeltsin and see how he reacts to them on the "Yeltsin Health Alert Website". Have fun while reinforcing the knowledge acquired in this course!

                                        Students who discover other websites of relevance to the course are encouraged to call these to the attention of me and the discussion leaders.

                     Course Requirements: Students are expected to:

                                    1) keep up with the reading assignments

                                    2) assimilate the materials presented in the lectures, as there is NO textbook for the course and the lecture provide background information essential to understand the readings, complete the assignments, and do well on the papers and examinations in this course. Short lecture outlines and lists of essential terms will be shown on transparencies during lectures. Regular class attendance is advised for those desirous of good grades OTHERWISE YOU ARE MAKING THIS CLASS FAR TOO HARD FOR YOURSELVES!!!!

                                    3) participate actively in discussion sections as discussion grades will count for 10% of the final grade in this course. Discussion grades will be determined on the basis of participation in discussions. Class discussions are designed to help you prepare for the papers and examinations.

                                    4) complete THREE SHORT PAPERS.

a. One of these will be based on the book King Leopold's Ghost . It is 2-3 pages long and is due on Feb. 14

b. The other two papers are to be 1-2 pages long and are based on reading assignments of particular interest to you.         Both of these papers MUST be completed BEFORE the mid-term exam. The papers are due during discussion sections on the date that we discuss the topic of the paper. Study Questions that provide suitable paper topics are included with each assignment.         NO LATE PAPERS WILL BE ACCEPTED!!!!        Papers will be graded on the basis of both content and writing (organization, spelling, grammar, syntax). Imagination and effective use of the reading assignments and other materials for the course will also figure in the assessment of these assignments. Students who need help with writing should seek help from their discussion leaders and from the Academic Learning Center in the O'Neill Library. Students should proofread the papers careful and use grammar and spelling checks.

                                    5) There will also be a mid-term and a final examination, based on study questions distributed in advance.  These two exams will be weighed equally and will count for 50% of your grade. The mid-term examination is scheduled for March 15. The final examination, scheduled for May 7 @ 10:30 A.M., will cover the entire course.


            1/16             Introduction and course requirements
            1/17             DISCUSSION CLASS: organization of the course. Read hanbdouts on special reading and study skills
            1/18             Lecture: The Motors of Modern History: The Industrial Revolution and the Modern Population Explosion                           ______________

            1/23             Lecture: The Human Revolution: Love, Marriage and the Family
            1/24             DISCUSSION: The Industrial Revolution: The Human Dimensions
                                               Reading Assignment: Reading No. 2 The Industrial Revolution
                                                                                         Internet assignment (OPTIONAL):
                                                Also go to The Industrial Revolution- pick the third selection, then Textiles and read materials by clicking on Sir Richard Arkwright.
                                                    FILM: "Working Lives" (20 minutes) required

                                    Study Questions:

                                               1. What was a typical day in the life of a typical industrial worker in the first several decades of the 19th century? in terms of work life, family life, and living standards?

                                               2. How did the life of an industrial worker in the early 19th century differ from his/her pre-industrial ancestors (the craftsmen, artisans or farmers of the Old Regime)? What was most different from pre-industrial life? What remained the same?

            1/25             Lecture: The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

            1/30             Lecture: The Restructuring of the European Political Order: Realism and Realpolitik
            1/31             DISCUSSION: The New Political Order: Revolutionary Alternatives and Social & Political Reform
                                               Internet Assignment (OPTIONAL):
                                                                               READ Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto, 3-31, 43-44.
                                              Study Questions:

                                                1. Discuss the Marxist theory of history as outlined in The Communist Manifesto. What causes historical change, according to Karl Marx? What historical stages did Marx and Engels believe that all societies must pass though? Why did they believe that capitalism will inevitably give way to socialism?

                                                2. What did Marx and Engels think about "bourgeois society" (as they call capitalism), according to The Communist Manifesto?

                                                3. What was happening in Europe at the time the Communist Manifesto was written? What were the Hungry Forties? How did these events influence the Revolutions of 1848 and the writing of the Communist Manifesto?

            2/1             The New Leviathin: The Growth of State Power and the Decline of the Church


            2/6             Lecture: The New Leviathin (II): Nationalism, Militarism, & Imperialism
            2/7             DISCUSSION: THE NEW IMPERIALISM
                                               Reading Assignments: Hoschild, King Leopold's Ghost, 1-181

                                              Study Questions for this and next week:

                                                1. How did the native population of King Leopold's Congo fare under his rule? Did he bring "civilization" to them as he said he would? How was the Congo ruled under Leopold? What was "the rubber terror"? What prompted it?
                                                2. Who revealed King Leopold's misdeeds? What were their motives? Why were there no natives among those who revealed the crimes of the Congo Free State?

                                                3. (For those of you who have read Conrad's Heart of Darkness) How does this novel reflect the situation in the Congo Free State of King Leopold II? How did your English teacher explain this novel? Why do you think this novel, which sought to expose the situation in the Congo, has been miscomprehended so long?

            2/8             Lecture: The Armed Peace (or the First Cold War)

            2/13            Lecture: Women in 19th Century Europe: Gender Roles & Gender Rebels
            2/14             DISCUSSION
                                               Reading Assignment: Hoschild, King Leopold's Ghost, 185-306
                                               PAPERS ON KING LEOPOLD'S GHOST DUE- EVERYONE MUST WRITE ONE!!!

            2/15             The End of the Century (I): The Revolt of the Avant-Garde


            2/20             Lecture: The Diplomatic Breakdown & the Origins of the First World War
            2/21             Lecture: The Struggle for Women's Suffrage
                                                   Reading Assignment: Readings no. 3: The Women's Revolt

                                                   Study Questions:

                                                    1. What were the achievements of Mrs. Emmeline Pankhurst and her two daughters Sylvia and Christobel? How did they manage to achieve their goal of votes for women?

                                                    2. "The broken window pane is the most effective political argument." What did Emmeline Pankhurst mean by this remark?

                                                    3. It is June, 1914. The British Prime Minister has just agreed to support a women's suffrage bill. You are a militant suffragist.  Try to explain how your victory was achieved to a friend. Why did women have to recourse to such tactics to win the vote?

                                                    4. What was the conflict between Sylvia and Christobel Pankhurst all about? What personal, political and tactical considerations lay behind the conflict between these two sisters and key leaders of the suffrage movement?

            2/22             The First World War: In the Trenches and on the Home Front

            2/27             Lecture: The Russian Revolution (I): The Roots of Revolution: Lenin and the Communist Party

            2/28             DISCUSSION: World War I                               _______________

                                                  reading assignment: Glover, Humanity, 1-57, 155-199
                                                  film: "Slaughter" (60 minutes) required

                                               Study Questions:

                                                1. What was a soldiers' life like at the Front in World War I? Why did the soldiers tolerate this for four long years?
                                                2. What was the role of the Home Front in the war? Why was it so important in this war, unlike earlier ones?
                                                3. What was different about this war from previous wars?

            3/1             Lecture: The Russian Revolution (II): Ten Months and Ten Days
                                      SPRING VACATION 3/5-3/11
            3/13             Lecture: From First World War to Great Depression

            3/14             DISCUSSION: The Russian Revolution
                                       Reading Assignment: Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, introduction, chapters 1 & 2
                                                        Reading 4- Brezhnev's Childhood
                                                        Video: "October" or "Ten Days that Shook the World" (1927) Eisenstein

                                               Study Questions:

                                                1. What kinds of people tended to become Bolsheviks? What was the political program of this Party? What factors account for its victory in the Russian Revolution of 1917?

                                                2. How and in what context did radical Marxists come to political power in Russia? Was Russia the kind of nation that Marx and Engels thought would spawn socialist revolution?

                                                3. Discuss the home town of the future Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev (1909-1982). What sort of town was it? What sorts of people lived there? How did they related to each other? Why did people like Brezhnev's family tend to support the Communist Revolution?

            3/15             Lecture: MID-TERM EXAM

            3/20             The Devil's Decade (I) Stalinist Terror

            3/21             DISCUSSION:
                                                Reading Assignment: Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, 120-172
                                                                                          Glover, Humanity, 237-282
                                                                            Readings No. 5, 1-41
                                                                           "Horror Stories" BC Magazine and selected documents from Danilov, Manning and Viola, The Tragedy of the Soviet Village Vol. 2 (handout)
                                                Study Questions:

                                                1. How does Glover, in Humanity, account for Stalin's terror?
                                                2. What other factors do we have to consider?
                                                3. Why does Glover give different figures on the terror than Prof. Manning did in the lecture?
                                                    4. How does the life of Soviet industrial workers of the Stalin era (as described by John Scott in Readings No. 5), compare to that of their Western European counterparts in the 1830s and 1840s? Were there any advantages to being an industrial worker at the height of the industrial revolution under Communism?

            3/22             Lecture: The Devil's Decade (II) Hitler's Rise to Power

            3/27             Lecture: The Devil's Decade (III) Hitler in Power

            3/28             DISCUSSION: World War II as Total War

                        Reading Assignment:

                       Humanity, 313-397, 69-116
                        Reading No. 5 The Unknown War

                        Films (recommended): "The Goths Ride East" (120 minutes--German invasion of Russia)
                        OR "The Cauldron Boils" (120 minutes--Battle of Stalingrad, the turning point of World War II in Europe)
                        Study Questions:

                        1) Why and how did the Fascists come to power in Germany? What was their program? By what means did they take power? What factors, forces and developments prompted people to support them?

                        2) How did the German invaders treat the Russian people? Why? What made them behave this way? What impact did these harsh policies have on the course of the war?

                        3) Describe Hitler's Death Camps. How were these organized and justified? What seems was their purpose? Were the Jews the only kinds of people found in the camps? What other kinds of people were found there? Why was the author of "This Way to the Gas Chamber, Ladies and Gentlemen" in the camps?

                        4) Were the Germans the only wartime belligerents that treated noncombatants in inhumane ways? Give some other examples of war crimes committed by World War II belligerents. Why were such atrocities so commonplace? Was the US an exception?

                        5) Discuss the role of women in World War II. In what country did women play the greatest role? In what capacities were women used? Were there any differences in how the various belligerents treated women? How did the female involvement influence the out- come of the war?

            3/29             The Political Collapse of Europe: The Rise of the Superpowers & the Colonial Rebellions                         ____________

            4/3             The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan and the Political Partition of Europe

             4/4             Dr. Strangelove Film Festival

                         Reading assignment: Argueta, A Day of Life, 3-79

            4/5                 NO CLASS--Professor Manning Leads Workshop on Stalin's Terror at UCLA                                                              ____________

            4/10             The Cold War Crises: Berlin, Vietnam, and Cuba

            4/11             DISCUSSION: The Cold War
                                          Reading assignment: Humanity, 200-233
                                          Argueta, A Day of Life, 80-160

            4/12             NO CLASSES--HOLY THURSDAY

                        Study Questions:
                                    1) Compare and contrast the Cold War period in the Communist Bloc and the Free World.
                                    2) What would Jonathon Glover say about the situation in El Salvador?
                                    3) What seems to prompt genocide in these cases?
                                    4) Who are the belligerents in A Day of Life?
                                    5) What side is the US on?
                                    6) Who are the "new priests"? How do they fit into the history of Catholicism?
                                    7) What happened in China and Cambodia prior to the Terror?

            4/19             The Economic Integration of Europe and the End of the Cold War


            4/24             The Reform Communism: From Khrushchev to Gorbachev

            4/25             DISCUSSION: Post Communist Horrors
                                                       Reading assignment: Humanity, 115-152, 399-414
                                                      Reading No. 7 The Social Market Economy

                                                Study questions:
                                                       1) Why didn't the killing end?
                                                       2) What factors prompted genocide in the cases discussed by Glover?
                                                       3) What is the social market economy?
                                                       4) What traditions in Europe did it build upon?
                                                       5) How does European capitalism differ from its American counterpart?

            4/26             The Fall of Communism and After: Why Can't We Live Happily Ever After?

            5/1                  Review Session for the Final

            5/2-5/3             STUDY DAYS

            5/7                  FINAL EXAMINATION @ 10:30

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