Postmodernity and Social Theory
Sc. 583.01 Fall 1997
"Postmodernism ... indicate[s] a specific moment
in history. It is a moment in which in-depth transformations of the system
of economic production are also altering traditional social and symbolic
structures. In the West, the shift away from manufacturing toward a service
and information-based structures entails a global redistribution of labor,
with the rest of the world and especially the developing countries providing
most of the underpaid, offshore production. This shift entails the decline
of traditional sociosymbolic systems ... [as] postmodernity corresponds
to reorganization of capital accumulation in a transnational mobile manner.
Given this new historical trend toward 'trans-national mobility, it is
imperative for critical theorists and cultural critics to rethink their
situation and their practices within this scheme."— Rosi Braidotti
"Disneyland is there to conceal the fact that it
is the 'real' country, all of the 'real' America which is Disneyland (just
as prisons are there to conceal the fact that it is the social in its entirety;
in its banal omnipresence which is carceral)."— Jean Baudrillard.
This course concerns the construction and critical deconstruction of
ultramodern cultural rituals. Technological rituals. Telecommunicative
rituals. Sacrificial rituals. Rituals that transform fields of power and
knowledge— bodily and in the imaginary realm. Rituals of economic positioning
and rituals of race, sex and gender. Military rituals. Rituals of modeling,
simulation, and telematic feedback. Rituals of pleasure; rituals of pain.
The sociological story of such rituals suggests a HIStory of the present—
a story of the male-governed and racist inFORMational rituals of CAPITAL
gone ultramodern and trans-global. This is also a story of those sentenced
to circulate at the imperial peripheries of vast new social-technologies
of power. Long excluded from reciprocal participation in the dominant rituals
of modernity, women, peoples of color, the sexually marginalized, and the
economically impoverished may today be doubly exiled by a dense and high
velocity transfer of fascinating media icons and flexible cybernetic control
processes. Beware: this may not be a pleasing story to tell together.
By connecting questions about postmodernity to gendered, racialized
and economic aspects rituals of contemporary social power, this course
invites a reflexive exploration of the psychic and bodily invasion of everyday
life by premodeled flows of CAPITAL-intensive inFORMation. This is CAPITAL
to such an intense degree that it becomes a war-like motion picture environment—
a fragmentary televisionary collage of memories and forgettings, an oscillating
social network of panicky fears and fascinations, each operating under
the seductive sign-work of aestheticization, commodification and excess.
Beware: this may not be a pleasing story to tell together.
Sociological questions concerning postmodernity are of significance
for the theorization of contemporary society and for activism aimed at
countering far-reaching forms of social domination. As such, this seminar
attempts a critical reading of postmodernity as an atmospheric dimension
of struggles for justice within and against the telecommunicative lures
of metropolitan first-world culture.
This is an advanced reading and writing seminar. Participants taking
the course for credit will be asked to read and discuss assigned course
materials, serve as periodic leaders of seminar discussion, and to complete
the following assignments. Auditors are welcome.
(1) Each participant is expected to produce five short 3 page written
responses to particular sets of assigned readings and seminar discussions.
(2) Each participant is expected to produce one 15 page paper involving
an ethnographic investigation of a particular scene or event within postmodern
society. A working draft of this text is to be presented as part of the
collective work of the seminar. Use of mixed media and experimental formats
are encouraged in the development of this essay.
Death at the Parasite Cafe
"I am burning with desire to tell a story of the postmodern, of the
society in which I find myself (k)notted in a complex network of inFORMationally
mediated relations to others. This is a story to counter-memorize or countermand
what I take to be an emerging terroristic formation in HIStory—the postmodern—a
new American Empire of the Senseless. Although this story passes through
my body breathless, it is not mine alone. Nor am I entirely by myself in
the re(w)ritings that become this text. No parasite is. Repeatedly."
"Come on, then." She took his hand. We'll get you a coffee and something
to eat. Take you home. Its good to see you, man." She squeezed his
Something at the core of things. The arcade froze, vibrated—
She was gone. The weight of memory came down, an entire body of knowledge
was driven into his head like a microsoft into a socket. Gone. He smelled
— Stephen Pfohl, Death and the Parasite Cafe and William Gibson, Neuromancer.
Setting the Stage in History
"In the morning I walked to the bank. I went to the automated teller
to check my balance. I inserted my card, entered my secret code, tapped
out my request. The figure on the screen roughly corresponded to my independent
estimate, feebly arrived at after long searched through documents, tormented
arithmetic. Waves of relief and gratitude flowed over me. The system
had blessed my life. I felt its support and approval. The system
hardware, the mainframe sitting in a locked room in some distant city.
What a pleasing interaction. I sensed that something of deep personal value,
but not money, not at all had been authenticated and confirmed. A deranged
person was escorted from the bank by two armed guards. The system was invisible,
which made it all the more impressive, all the more disquieting to deal
with. But we were in accord, at least for now. The networks, the circuits,
the streams, the harmonies.'—Don DeLillo, White Noise.
Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1994, pp. 1-39.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Introduction: After Organized Capitalism," in
Economies of Signs and Space, Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 1994,
Stephen Pfohl, "When Words Become Flesh and Flesh Becomes Words," and "Questions
of Access and Excess," in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social Science (Fictions)
and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992, 2-39.
Mark Poster, ed., "Introduction," in Jean Baudrillard: Selected Writings,
Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988, pp. 1-9.
Susan Willis, "Unwrapping Use Value," in A Primer for Daily Life, New York:
Routledge, 1991, pp. 1-21.
Stephen Crook, Jan Pakulski, and Malcolm Waters, Postmodernization: Change
in Advanced Society. London: SAGE Publications, 1992.
Mike Gane, Baudrillard: Critical and Fatal Theory, New York: Routledge,
Trinh T. Minh-ha, "All-Owning Spectatorship," in When the Moon Waxes
Red: Representation, Gender and Cultural Politics, New York: Routledge,
1991, pp. 81-105.
Flowing Systems of
"The spectacle is capital to such a degree of accumulation that it becomes
an image."—Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle
"Postmodernism...is not just another word for the description of a particular
style. It is also a periodicizing concept whose function is to correlate
the emergence of new formal features in culture with the emergence of a
new type of social life of a new economic order—what is euphemistically
called modernization, postindustrial, or consumer society, the society
of the media or spectacle, or multinational capital."—Fredric Jameson,
"Postmodernism and Consumer Society"
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Mobile Objects," in Economies of Signs and Space,
Stephen Pfohl, "Stupid Fresh Jack Double Density," "My First Confession,"
and "Unsingular Beginnings," in Death at the Parasite Cafe, 41-55.
Sadie Plant, The Most Radical Gesture: the Situationist International in
a Postmodern Age. London: Routledge, 1992, pp. 1-37.
Jean Baudrillard, "The System of Objects," in Selected Writings, Stanford,
CA: Stanford University Press, 1988, pp. 10-28.
Susan Willis, "Gender as Commodity," in A Primer for Daily Life, New York:
Routledge, 1991, pp. 23-40.
Fredric Jameson, "Postmodernism and Consumer Society," in Hal Foster (ed.),
The Anti-Aesthetic, Port Townsend, WA: Bay Press, 1985, pp. 111-125.*
David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, London: Basil Blackwell,
Jean Baudrillard, "Consumer Society," in Selected Writings, pp. 29-56.
From Modern (Gendered)
Subjects to Postmodern Cyborgs
"Our cyborg worlds extend from the military... to video games, to advertising,
to home appliances, to the work-place, to 'defense' debates. In all those
realms, the military information society not only defines the ruling order
but also sets the terms for what counts as an effective opposition."—Les
Levidow and Kevin Robins, Cyborg Worlds
Donna Haraway, "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist
Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century," in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women:
The Reinvention of Nature, New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 149-181.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Reflexive Subjects," in Economies of Signs and
Space, pp. 31-59.
Rosi Braidotti, "Organs Without Bodies," in Nomadic Subjects, pp. 41-56.
Jackie Orr, "Panic Diary: Reconstructing a Partial Politics and Poetics
of Disease," in Gale Miller and James Holstein, eds., Reconsidering Social
Constructionism. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1993, pp. 441-482.
Marshall McLuhan, "Cybernation and Culture," in Charles R. Dechert, ed.
The Social Impact of Cybernetics, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966, pp.
Chris Hables Gray, "The Cyborg Soldier: The US Military and the Postmodern
Warrior," in Les Levidow and Kevin Robins, eds., Cyborg Worlds: the Military
Information Society, London: Free Association Books, 1989, pp. 43-71.
N. Kathryn Hayles, "The Seductions of Cyberspace," in Verena Andermatt
Conley, ed., Rethinking Technologies, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press, 1993, pp. 173-190.*
Chris Hables Gray ed., with assistance of Heidi J. Figueroa-Sarriera and
Steven Mentor, The Cyborg Handbook, New York: Routledge, 1995.
Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society,
London: Free Association Books, 1989 (1950).
Eating the Racialized
Other of Modernity
"The commodification of Otherness has been so successful because it
is offered as a new delight, more intense, more satisfying than normal
ways of doing and feeling.... The 'real fun' is to be had by bringing to
the surface all those 'nasty' unconscious fantasies and longings about
contact with the Other embedded in the secret (and not so secret) deep
structure of white supremacy."— bell hooks
Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press, 1993, pp. 1-40.
Susan Willis, "I Want the Black One," in A Primer for Daily Life, New York:
Routledge, 1991, pp. 108-132.
bell hooks, "Introduction" and "Eating the Other," in Black Looks: Race
and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992, pp. 1-7; 21-39.*
Cornel West, "Black Culture and Postmodernism," in Barbara Kruger and Phil
Marini, eds., Remaking History, Seattle, WA: Bay Press, 1990, pp. 87- 96.*
Stephen Pfohl, "Twilight of the Parasites: Ultramodern Capital and the
New World Order," Social Problems, Vol. 40, No. 2, (May 1993), pp. 129-151.*
Ariel Dorfman, The Empire's New Clothes, New York: Pantheon, 1983, pp.
3-64, 108-131, 199-210.
Edward Said, "In the Shadow of the West," Wedge 7/8 (Winter/Spring 1985),
bell hooks, "Postmodern Blackness," in Yearnings, Boston: South End Press,
1990, pp. 23-31.
Gloria Anzaldua, "La conciencia de la mestiza: Towards a New Consciousness,"
in Gloria Anzualdua, ed., Making Face, Making Soul: Creative and Critical
Perspectives by Women of Color, San Francisco; Aunt Lute Foundation, 1990,
Michael Ventura, "Hear that Long Snake Moan," in Shadow Dancing in the
USA, Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher Inc., 1985, pp. 103-162.
From the Haunts of
Production to the
Ecstasies of Consumption
"The logic of representation—of the duplication of its object—haunts
all rational discursiveness. Every critical theory is haunted by this surreptitious
religion, this desire bound up with the object, this negativity subtly
haunted by the very form it negates."— Jean Baudrillard.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Reflexive Accumulation: Information Structures
and Production Systems," in Economies of Signs and Space, pp. 60-110 and
"Accumulating Signs: The Cultural Industries," in Economies of Signs and
Space, pp. 111-144.
Stephen Pfohl, "A Story of the Eye/I"" in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social
Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, 59-103.
Jean Baudrillard, "Mirror of Production," in Selected Writings, pp. 98-118.
Susan Willis, "Work(ing) Out," in A Primer for Daily Life, New York: Routledge,
1991, pp. 62-85.
Michael Taussig, "Tactility and Distraction," in The Nervous System, New
York: Routledge, 1992, pp. 141-148.*
Jean Baudrillard, "For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign,"
in Selected Writings, pp. 57-97.
Douglas Kellner, Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics
Between the Modern and the Postmodern, New York: Routledge, 1995.
Norman K. Denzin, Images of Postmodern Society: Social Theory and Contemporary
Cinema, London: SAGE, 1991.
From Doubled Consciousness
to Cybernetic Feedback
"P]ostmodernism enjoins us in the necessity for engaging in a cultural
politics... It is not surprising that the most interesting theoretical
works and reflections on the state of contemporary culture have come out
of art and literary [engagements]... and have come from women... who have
attempted to grapple with the... issue of representation of women. They
do not necessarily offer positive images of women, but they do question
the notion of "Woman" as a natural construct. They do not offer solutions,
but instead force the readers of their works to develop skills in interpreting
and reading. It is important to transit skills that will allow consumers
of capitalism to understand the power of images in general and to question
the notion of immutability of that which we take to be real. It is at this
conjuncture that aesthetic judgment and politics meet."—Kim Sawchuk, "A
Tale of Inscription/Fashion Statements."
Sadie Plant, "... a world of pleasures to win and nothing to lose but boredom,"
in The Most Radical Gesture, pp. 39-74.
Paul Gilroy, "Masters, Mistresses, Slaves and the Antinomies of Modernity,"
in The Black Atlantic, pp. 41-71.
Stephen Pfohl, "The Double or No-Thing," and "Elementary Forms of Ultramodern
Social Life," in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social Science (Fictions)
and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992, pp. 135-153.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Ungovernable Spaces: The Underclass and the
Impacted Ghettoes," in Economies of Signs and Space, pp. 145-170.
Susan Willis, "Learning from the Banana," A Primer for Daily Life, New
York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 41-61.
Meaghan Morris, "Room 101 or a Few Worst Things in the World," in
The Pirate's Fiancee, New York: Verso, 1988, pp. 187-211.
Arthur Kroker, "Paul Virilio: The Postmodern Body as a War Machine," in
The Possessed Individual: Technology and the French Postmodern, New York:
St. Martin's 1992, pp. 20-50.
Michele Richman, "Anthropology and Modernism in France: From Durkheim to
the College de sociologie," in Marc Manganaro, ed., Modernist Anthropology:
from Fieldwork to Text, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990,
pp. 183- 214.
Emily Martin, "Complex Systems" and "Flexible Systems" in Flexible Bodies:
the Role of Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the
Age of Aids. Boston: Beacon Press, 1994, pp. 115-126; 143-159.
Flexible Reconfigurations of
Power and Catastrophe
"Who can now speak with confidence of the future of a postmodern scene
when what is truly fascinating is the thrill of catastrophe, and where
what drives onward economy, politics, culture, sex, and even eating is
not the will to accumulation or the search for lost coherencies,
but just the opposite—the ecstatic implosion of modern culture into
excess, waste, and disaccumulation. When technology of quantum order produces
human beings who are part-metal and part-flesh, when robo-beings
constitute the growing majority of a western culture which fulfills then
exceeds, Weber's grim prophecy of the coming of an age of "specialists
without spirit', and when chip technology finally makes possible the fateful
fusion of molecular biology and technique: then ours is genuinely a postmodern
condition marked by the deepest and most pathological symptoms of nihilism."—Arthur
Kroker and David Cook, The Postmodern Scene
Arthur Kroker, "Technological Humanism: The Processed World of Marshall
McLuhan," in Technology and the Canadian Mind, Montreal: New World Perspectives,
1986, pp. 52-86.
Rosi Braidotti, "Mothers, Monsters and Machines," in Nomadic Subjects,
Stephen Pfohl, "Totems and Taboo" in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social
Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992,
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Mobile Subjects: Migration in Comparative Perspective,"
in Economies of Signs and Space, pp. 171-192.
Jean Baudrillard, "Symbolic Exchange and Death," in Selected Writings,
Sadie Plant, "... a single choice: suicide or revolution," in The Most
Radical Gesture, pp. 75-110.
Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, Detroit: Black and Red Press, 1983
(1967), sections 1-53.
Henri Lefebvre, "The Bureaucratic Society of Controlled Consumption," pp.
68-109 in Everyday Life in the Modern World, trans. Sara Rabinovitch, London:
Allen Lane, 1971.
The Fate of Whose
Bodies in Ultramodernity?
"They see death everywhere.... They think solely of the fact that they
live surrounded by vipers, tigers and cannibals. Their imaginations are
constantly struck by the idea of death as figured by these images of the
wild and the only way they could live in such a world...was by themselves
inspiring terror."—Michael Taussig
Sadie Plant, "Victory will be for those who create disorder without loving
it," in The Most Radical Gesture, pp. 111-149.
Rosi Braidotti, "Body Images and the Pornography of Representation" in
Nomadic Subjects, pp. 57-74.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Post-Industrial Spaces," in Economies of Signs
and Space, pp. 193-222.
Jean Baudrillard, "Simulacra and Simulations," in Selected Writings, pp.
Susan Willis, "Sweet Dreams," in A Primer for Daily Life, New York: Routledge,
1991, pp. 133-157.
William Bogard, The Simulation of Surveillance: Hypercontrol in Telematic
Societies, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Elizabeth Grosz, "Intensities and Flows" and "Sexed Bodies" in Volatile
Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indian University Press,
1994, pp. 160-210.
Reconfiguring Power and
Resistance in the Postmodern
"Jean Baudrillard is the theorist of nihilism as the fate of postmodernity....
a theorist of the cynical commodity. What makes Baudrillard so dangerous,
allowing him to put Nietzsche into play as the doppelganger of Marx's Capital,
is that he writes from that point where the commodity-form, abandoning
its historical association with the simulacra of concrete labor, reveals
itself for what it always was: a transparent sign-system that traces out
in the curved space of political economy (and of consumer culture) the
implosive, disaccumulative, and seductive cycle of postmodern power."—
Arthur Kroker, "Baudrillard's Marx."
Arthur Kroker and Michael Weinstein, Data Trash: the Theory of the Virtual
Class, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994, pp. 1-26.*
Rosi Braidotti, "Re-figuring the Subject," in Nomadic Subjects, pp. 95-110.
Stephen Pfohl, "Infantile Recurrence and Overdevelopment," in Death at
the Parasite Cafe: Social Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, New York:
St. Martin's Press, 1992, pp. 209-235.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Time and Memory," in Economies of Signs and
Space, pp. 223-251.
Jean Baudrillard, "On Seduction," in Selected Writings, pp. 149-165.
Arthur Kroker, "Baudrillard's Marx," in Arthur Kroker and David Cook, The
Postmodern Scene, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986, pp. 170-188.
Arthur Kroker, Marilouise Kroker and David Cook, "Panic USA," Social Problems,
Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1990), pp. 443-459.
Stephen Pfohl, "Welcome to the Parasite Cafe: Postmodernity as a Social
Problem," Social Problems, Vol. 37. No. 4 (November 1990), pp. 421-442.
Jackie Orr, "Theory on the Market: Panic Incorporating," Social Problems,
Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1990), pp. 460-484.
"['Our' problem is how to have simultaneously an account of radical
historical contingency for all claims and knowing subjects, a critical
practice for recognizing our own 'semiotic technologies' for making meanings,
and a no-nonsense commitment to faith accounts of a 'real' world, one that
can be partially shared and friendly to earth-wide projects of finite freedom,
adequate material abundance, modest meaning in suffering, and limited happiness."—
Donna Haraway, "Situated Knowledges."
Jackie Orr, "Re/sounding Race, Re/signifying Ethnography: Sampling Oaktown
Rap," in Gabriel Byrne and Mark Driscoll, eds., Prosthetic Territories:
Politics and Hypertechnologies, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 168-203.
Donna Haraway, "Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and
the Privilege of Partial Perspective," Simians, Cyborgs and Women, pp.
Stephen Pfohl, "Yuppies from Mars," in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social
Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992,
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Mobility, Modernity and Place," in Economies
of Signs and Space, pp. 252-278.
Zygmunt Bauman, "A Sociological Theory of Postmodernity," in Intimations
of Postmodernity, New York Routledge, 1992, pp. 187-204.*
Paul Virilio, "Transappearance," Artform, (Summer 1989), pp. 129-130.
James Clifford, "Introduction: Partial Truths," pp. 1-26 in James Clifford
and George E. Marcus (eds.), Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics
of Ethnography, Berkeley; University of California Press, 1986.
Mark Poster, The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context,
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Countering the Cold
Passions of the Commodity Form
"Developing a style nobody can deal with—a style that cannot be easily
understood or erased, a style that has the reflexivity to create counterdominant
narratives against a mobile and shifting enemy—may be one of the most effective
ways to fortify communities of resistance and simultaneously receive the
right to communal pleasure."— Tricia Rose, Black Noise.
Sadie Plant, "Flee, but while fleeing, pick up a weapon," in The Most Radical
Gesture, pp. 150-187.
Ann Game and Andrew Metcalfe, Passionate Sociology. London: SAGE, 1996,
pp. 1-5; 43-86.
Tricia Rose, "Voices from the Margins," and "'All Aboard the Night Train':
Flow, Layering and Rupture in Postindustrial New York," in Black Noise:
Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America, Hanover, CT: Weslyean
University Press, 1994, pp. 1-61.*
Paul Gilroy, "'Jewels from Bondage': Black Music and the Politics of Authenticity,"
in The Black Atlantic, pp. 70-110.
Jean Baudrillard, "Fatal Strategies," in Selected Writings, pp. 185-219.
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Globalization and Localization," in Economies
of Signs and Space, pp. 279-313.
Stephen Pfohl, "Meta-Voodoo Economics," in Death at the Parasite Cafe:
Social Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press,
1992, pp. 249-261.
Embodying the Challenge
of Postmodern Formations
"But what if the postmodern double is itself reflexively redoubled,
such that its site of parasitic violence is partially disclosed? Not dis-covered
but disclosed, or noticeably closed differently. What will our eyes/"i"s
behold, then, but the remasked sight of our own bodily complicities, fears,
refusals and desires— falling, like the capitalized pages of some ill begotten
whitemen's history, into the broken mirrored freshness of other material
imaginings and yearnings for more loving ritual sign-work? What a laugh!"
—B. Madonna Durkheim, Second Helpings and Mutual Aid.
Cynthia Kaufman, "Postmodernism and Praxis: Weaving Radical Theory from
Threads of Desire and Discourse," Socialist Review, Vol. 24, No. 3 (1994),
Stephen Pfohl, "The Orphans' Revenge," in Death at the Parasite Cafe: Social
Science (Fictions) and the Postmodern, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992,
Scott Lash and John Urry, "Conclusion," in Economies of Signs and Space,
Susan Willis, "Earthquake Kits" and "Afterward," in A Primer for Daily
Life, New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 158-181.
Paul Gilroy, "Living Memory and the Slave Sublime," in The Black Atlantic,
Kim Sawchuk, "A Tale of Inscription/Fashion Statements," pp. 61-77
in Arthur and Marilouise Kroker (eds.), Body Invaders; Panic Sex
in America, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
Hakim Bey, T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological Anarchy,
Poetic Terrorism, New York: Autonomedia, 1991.
Klaus Theweleit, Male Fantasies. Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, l987, pp. 229-435.
Stanley Aronowitz, "Postmodernity and Politics," in The Politics of Identity:
Class, Culture and Social Movements, New York: Routledge, 1992, pp. 253-271.