Weekly Discussion and Review Questions

 Chapter 12 Origins of the Cold War

Questions of the Documents: :

What was the essence of the Atlantic Charter? What did the Soviet ambassador mean by his response?

What was Stalin's attitude toward the lands of Eastern Europe during his conversation with Eden in 1941? Was it very different from his discussion with Churchill in 1944? How did the British respond?

The so-called "Polish Question" contained two aspects: who should rule and what should be the boundaries of Poland? Why was the issue so important to the USSR? To the USA? To Great Britain?

What did the Allies agree upon, with respect to the Polish Question, at the Yalta Conference in February 1945? Why was there subsequent disagreement over what had been settled? What was Roosevelt's position? Churchill's? Stalin's?

What role did the expulsion of the Germans play in the "Polish Question?" How did these actions by the Red Army contribute to the growing misunderstanding? What stance did President Truman take in the face of these actions? What was Stalin's reaction?

Define the various proposals for post-war Germany: a) what were Stalin's designs? b) what did the 1944 Morgenthau Plan suggest? c) Why did Truman reject both ideas?

What was the Potsdam Agreement over Germany? How was Germany to be occupied? What was the agreed-upon goal of this occupation? What was the method?

Two issues arose to disrupt the "harmony" reached at Potsdam The first arose out of revulsion over semi-barbarian activities. What were those? The second concerned economic facts of post-war Germany. What were these, and how did they complicate the creation of policy?

What is the essence of the Joint Cheifs of Staff proposal of 19 September 1945? Is it surprising to find this conclusion at such an early date?

Identify from the "long telegram" of George F. Kennan: a)his analysis of the principles of Russian policy? b) the Kremlin's foreign policy? and c) his recommendation for US policy makers? What prompted Kennan to send this long dispatch?

What assumption did Churchill follow in describing Europe in his 1946 speech in Missouri? What were the elements of Joseph Stalin's response to Churchill?

Identify from the long dispatch of Nicholai novikov: a) his analysis of the principles of US policy? b) Washington's foreign program? and c) his recommendation for Soviet policy? Hat prompted Novikov to send this long dispatch?

What European crisis prompted the 1947 Truman Doctrine? What new elements of American foreign policy did Truman introduce in his speech before Congress? Is there any truth in the Izvestia editorial in response?

How did the Joint Chiefs of Staff react to the Truman Doctrine? Does their statement support or contradict Novikov's analysis?

What did Secretary of State George Marshall intend the European Recovery Program to accomplish? And how? What elements did Soviet Government single out in condemning the Marshall Plan?

What did George Kennan mean by "Containment?" How did events in Prague and Germany fit into his analysis? What role did the Berlin blockade play in the evolution of the Containment policy?

What recommendation was central to the document entitled NSC-68, 14 April 1950?

What was the Stalin Note? What were the British and French reactions? Who opposed all suggestions to meet the Russian half-way? Why?

Why did Premier Khrushchev re-open the Berlin question in 1958 and again in 1961? How did the United States react? Who erected the Berlin Wall, and why? Why did the United States fail to take strong steps in return? What was the impact of this decision upon Germans?

Chapter Summary Questions:

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