Weekly Discussion and Review Questions

 Chapter 3 Conservatism 

Questions of the Documents: 

From your reading of Burke, what is his view of the nature of "society?" What role does tradition play in forming society? What role do individuals play?

Why do some (often the nobility) have specific responsibilites in society according to Burke?

Is Burke a supporter of absolute monarchy? of rule only by aristocratic privileges?

What is Burke's central criticism of the French Revolution? What does this criticism of the French Revolution reveal concerning Burke's view of human nature?

What does Burke mean when he appeals to "prejudice" as the proper basis for human reactions?

Why does de Maistre consider a formulated constitution impossible and impious?

What does de Maistre mean when he argues that "abuse" and "vice" is a necessary part of any political constitution?

Why does Metternich fear the Enlightenment's glorification of reason and what evils has this development caused?

Whom in society does Metternich hold responsible for the unrest and unheavals associated with the French revolution and its terror? Why?

What is Metternich's solution to the threats of revolution?

Bonald also criticizes the momentous changes occuring in Europe yet his analysis differs from those of both Burke and Metternich. What are Bonald's fears and criticisms?

What do the three excerpts from Blackwood's Magazine define as the central message of Tory Democracy?

What assumptions about human nature and human society do the Earl of Shaftesbury and Thomas Carlyle share? Why does their "social conscience" differ so markedly from the capitalists studied in the last chapter?

How would you characterize the attitude toward children offered by Susannah Wesley and the French mother in 1850? What is "conservative" about these attitudes? Why would Burke, Metternich and Bonald have agreed with these women?

What did Weilliam Sewell see as his educational goal and how to achieve it?

Why does Bonald refer to a newspaper as a "lectureship?" Does anyone accept this concept today?

The terms conservate and reactionary often are used synonymously, which they should not. Define reaction. How does it differ from conservatism?

Chapter Summary Questions:

 

Terms to Know:

constitution
human frailty
"Dangerous" ideas
reactionary
Tory democracy

Growth of Cities 1800-1890 (figures in 1,000's)

Cities by Rank (1890)

1800
1850
1890
Annual Increase %
1800-1890
1850-1890

1. London

958.8
2,362.1
4,211.7

3.77
1.96

3. Paris

546.9
1,053.3
2,448.0

3.81
3.31

4. Berlin

173.4
378.2
1,578.8

9.08
7.94

5. Vienna

232.0
431.1
1,341.9

5.31
5.28

8. St. Petersburg

270.0
490.0
1,003.3

3.01
2.61

14. Hamburg

120.0
205.0
711.9

5.48
6.18

15. Manchester

90.4
388.5
703.5

7.63
2.03

17. Glasgow

77.1
329.1
658.2

8.37
2.50

19. Liverpool

82.3
376.0
518.0

6.21
.95

22. Birmingham

70.7
232.8
478.1

6.40
2.63

24. Brussels

66.3
188.5
465.5

6.70
3.67

25. Naples

400.0
415.0
463.2

.19
.29

29. Lyons

109.5
177.2
429.3

3.20
3.56

31. Amsterdam

217.0
234.0
408.1

.92
2.16

34. Copenhagen

101.0
143.0
375.7

3.10
4.07

 From this chart, what conclusions can you make about the growth of cities? Which cities had the highest rate of growth, which the least? What kind of cities seemed to experience the most sustained growth. Compare in particular the experience of Naples and Manchester!

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