Weekly Discussion and Review Questions

 Chapter 10 The Appeal of Fascism

Questions of the Documents: :

How does Alfredo Rocco define society? How does this reveal Rocco's conservative background?What does that imply for the co-existence of societies with one another?

What is the principle thrust of the 1919 Broadsheet of the Central Committee of the Italian Fasci di Combattimento? What does it mean by claiming to be anti-dogmatic and anti-demagogic?

In the Fascist program of 1919, what is "integral nationalism?" How do the "corporations" play a role here? What is the role of the State? Do these Fascist points resemble past political programs?

How would you characterize Mussolini's speeches? What do they add to the "programmatic" statements on Fascism?

Using Mussolini's essay of 1935, can you summarize Fascism in six or seven key sentence?, e.g.on such subjects as the State, the nation, struggle, democracy, socialism,liberalism.

Summarize the twenty-five points in the program of the NSDAP in six or seven key sentences. In what ways do they form a coherent whole? in what ways self-contradictory? Where does this program borrow from Mussolini's Fascism?

How would you characterize Hitler's speeches? What do they add to the "programmatic statements on Nazism?

What is the "völkisch State?" Does Mussolini have a similar concept? In the passages from Mein Kampf, how does Hitler employ the concept of "race?" Is any of this new?

What does Hitler repeatedly stress in his speeches after 1925? Does this resemble Mussolini? Comparing them with Zelea Condreanu's speech, is there anything "unique" in Hitler's approach?

In Mein Kampf, what does Hitler say is the most important way to win mass support? Using the accounts of his listeners, what rhetorical weapons are in Hitler's political arsenal.

What factors frequently recur in the 1934 autobiographical essays of Nazis? Is there a pattern here as to what attracted people to Nazism? Are women and men attracted by the same thing?

What was Hitler's approach to violence? In the autobiographical essays was it a source of attraction or repulsion? Why?

Remembering the earlier chapter from the adventures of Heinz Hackendahl, is this account of joining the NSDAP a surprise? What are the principle reasons for this move? Do you think this was typical of many people? Under such circumstances, would you have been attracted to Nazism?

Chapter Summary Questions:

Election Chart German General Elections, 1920-1932

Examine the following chart, to identify where the new voters supporting Adolf Hitler came from. What parties remain basically unaffected by the economic crises? What parties gain strength? What parties loose supporters?

[Number of Voters, and Percentage of votes cast)

Parties

April 1920

May 1924

July 1928

Oct 1930

July 1932

Nov 1932

March 1933

Working Class Parties

Social Semocrats

6.100,000

(22%)

6.000,000

(20%)

9.200,000

(30%)

8,600,000

(25%)

7,900,000

(22%)

7,200,000

(20%)

7,180,000

(18%)

Communists

5,600,000

(20%)

3,700,000

(13%)

3,300,000

(11%)

4,600,000

(13%)

5,300,000

(15%)

6,000,000

(17%)

4,800,000

(12%)

Middle-Class Parties

All Excluding Center

7,100,000

(26%)

6,500,000

(22%)

7,200,000

(23%)

6,400,000

(18%)

1,700,000

5%)

2,300,000

(7%)

1,300,000

(2%)

Center (Catholic) Party

4,100,000

(18%)

4,900,000

(17%)

5,200,000

(15%)

5,200,000

(15%)

5,700,000

(16%)

5,300,000

(15%)

5,600,000

(15%)

Peasant/Farmer Parties

600,000

(2%)

1,300,000

(4%)

1,600,000

(5%)

300,000

(.7%)

300,000

(.8%)

200,000

(.5%)

Conservatives

4,300,000

(15%)

5,700,000

(20%)

4,400,000

(14%)

2,500,000

(7%)

2,200,000

(6%)

2,900,000

(9%)

3,100,000

(6%)

National Socialists

1.900.000

(7%)

800,000

(3%)

6,400,000

(18%)

13,700,000

(37%)

11,700,000

(33%)

17,300,000

(44%)

Return to Hs 002.01, the Core History Course Page
Return to Professor Heineman's Homepage Index