TH /LL/PY/UN 461 Human Rights: CHRIJ Interdisciplinary Seminar
HUMAN RIGHTS: INTERDISCIPLINARY SEMINAR
Spring, 2011, Thursday, 12-2:20 pm, meets in Campion 016
Instructor: David Hollenbach, S.J.                                                                             
Phone & Email: 617-552-0670, hollenb@bc.edu               
Webpage: 
http://www2.bc.edu/~hollenb/
Office: 21 Campanella Way, room 318  
Office Hours: Wed. 4:30—5:15, Thurs.  2:30—4:00, or by appointment.

 
COURSE DESCRIPTION

This interdisciplinary seminar is sponsored by the Center for Human Rights and International Justice.  It draws students from across the university into dialogue with each other and with BC faculty, guest speakers, and visiting scholars on issues of human rights and international justice.  During spring, 2010, the seminar has been will be taught by David Hollenbach, S.J., Director of the CHIRJ.  It draws on an interdisciplinary understanding of—and responses to—some compelling human rights challenges of our times.  This spring the seminar will give particular emphasis the ethical, religious, political, legal, and psychosocial aspects of the human rights issues confronting migrants, refugees and internally displaced populations throughout the world.  The seminar will begin with an overview of human rights instruments and then focus on human rights issues in the context of humanitarian crises, causes of forced migration globally and locally, and by the U.S. immigration and deportation systems. We will also consider critiques of human rights discourse based on diversities in religion, culture/ethnicity/race and gender—as well as how these factors may serve as resources for resistance to violations of rights.  
 
REQUIREMENTS.

1. Completion of assigned readings in advance of class.

2. Participation in all class discussions.

3. Introduction of readings for class discussion.

From Jan. 27 to April 7, inclusive, except when visiting lecturers are present (i.e. not Feb. 10, Feb. 24, and March 24): Working in teams, students will introduce the class discussion (the number of times depending on course enrollment). Working together, they will prepare a one-page handout as a basis for discussion, with copies to be distributed to all participants at the beginning of the class. This handout should contain: (a) the three or four major theses of the readings for the day, stated in complete sentences. A thesis is a direct, simple statement in propositional form of one of the affirmations being made by the author. In the oral presentation, the author's argument in support of each thesis should be presented. (b) One or two central questions the class should address in order to assess the significance and truth of the theses advanced by the readings. (10% of grade)

4. Presentation of a practical issue.  

Sessions from Jan. 27 to April 7, inclusive, except not Feb. 10, Feb. 24, and March 24): Students working in teams of two or three will make a presentation in class on one of the practical topics indicated on the syllabus.  Some bibliography for the topics can be found on later pages of this syllabus. This presentation will be for 15 minutes maximum, and will be followed by class discussion.  The assignment of topics will be worked out during the first two weeks of the course and the date for the presentation will be assigned by the instructor. 35% of course grade.

5. Writing and presentation of a paper

Sessions from April 14 through May 5. . Each student will present a draft of his or her term paper to the seminar

The topic should be selected in consultation with the instructor at a meeting during the week of March 14-18. A sign-up sheet for 20 minute appointments will be posted on the professor’s office door on March 1. It is the responsibility of the student to make an appointment to see the instructor and times other than those posted will not be available. The student should give the instructor a one page proposal on the topic of the paper at least 48 hours in advance of this meeting.

Possible paper topics include:
a further development of one or more authors considered in the first part of the course;
a critical treatment of an a practical issue considered in the first part of the course or related to it;
development of a question or theme related to the topic of human rights that is related to the student’s previous research or projected future research.

The instructor will assign dates for presentation of the draft papers by March 22.

A draft of this paper will be distributed electronically to all seminar participants by noon of the Tuesday prior to the presentation. This draft will include:

1. The tentative title of the paper.
2. A brief statement of the problem to be addressed in the paper (one page maximum, one paragraph preferred). This statement of the problem should indicate the question to which the paper will provide an answer.
3. The basic argument of the paper. This is the major portion of the paper.
4. A tentative formulation of the conclusion to be drawn.
5. A brief working bibliography of the resources drawn upon in the paper (do not include items that you are not actually working with--this should be an honest list of the resources used.

Note: A draft is not the first few pages of an incomplete paper but a sketch of the paper as a whole. All five points mentioned above should be present in the draft.

The oral presentation of the prospectus and draft will last no more than ten minutes MAXIMUM. The presenter should presume that other seminar participants have read the written material in advance.

A respondent will give brief feedback to the author in the following points:
1. How the problem being addressed can be more clearly defined.
2. How the approach to the problem can be clarified and strengthened.
3. How the conclusion can be more rigorously established. (5% of course grade)

Other seminar participants should come to the discussion prepared to make constructive suggestions to the author on each of these points.
The final term paper, about 12 pages pages, 15 pages maximum, double-spaced, and is due on Friday, May 13 by 4 pm. (50% of course grade, for draft, presentation and final paper)

6. Academic Integrity.
 
Boston College values the academic integrity of its students and faculty. It is your responsibility to familiarize yourself with the university’s policy on academic integrity: http://www.bc.edu/integrity . If you have any questions, always consult your professor. Violations of academic integrity will be reported to your class dean and judged by the academic integrity committee in your school. If you are found responsible for violating the policy, penalties may include a failing grade as well as possible probation, suspension, or expulsion, depending on the seriousness and circumstances of the violation.
 

Resources
 
Students may find the following human rights webpages useful:
 
Boston College Center for Human Rights and International Justice:  http://www.bc.edu/centers/humanrights/
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library (many of the key human rights instruments and resources:  http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts 
United Nations, human rights related resources: http://www.un.org/rights
United States Department of State, Human Rights Country Reports:  http://www.state.gov/g/drl/hr/index.cfm?id=1470
Amnesty International: http://www.amnesty.org
Human Rights Watch: http://www.hrw.org
Human Rights First (formerly the Lawyers Committee on Human Rights): http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/
Human Rights Internet: http://www.hri.ca
International Committee of the Red Cross:  http://www.icrc.org
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: http://www.unhcr.org

SYLLABUS
 
Readings marked  +  are in books available for purchase at the B.C. bookstore and are available on reserve in O'Neill Library. 

Other readings that are required will be available on the course Blackboard site or through links to online versions that are indicated in the syllabus. An electronic version of the syllabus will be on the Blackboard site for the course.
 
1/20     Overview of the course
 
Video in class:  “Enemies of War”
 
Background materials:

Please look over the first three documents before the first class if you are not already familiar with them.
 
United Nations General Assembly, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.  Available online at: http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html
 
United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December, 1966, entry into force 23 March 1976, available online at:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm
 
United Nations General Assembly, “International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,” 16 December 1966, entry into force 3 January 1976, available online at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cescr.htm
 
United Nations Development Program, Human Development Report 2000, chapter 1, historical landmarks in "The Ongoing Struggle for Human Rights," pp. 27-28. Available online at:  http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/hdr_2000_ch1.pdf
 
World Conference on Human Rights, "Vienna Declaration and Programme of
Action," 25 June 1993.  Available online at: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/A.CONF.157.23.En?OpenDocument
 
 Parliament of the World's Religions, Toward a Global Ethic: An Initial
Declaration (1993).  Available online at:  http://www.urbandharma.org/pdf/ethic.pdf
 
Jean-Paul Marthoz and Joseph Saunders, “Religion and the Human Rights
Movement,” in   Human Rights Watch World Report 2005, available online at: http://www.hrw.org/legacy/wr2k5/religion/index.htm
 
 
1/27     The drafting of the Universal Declaration
 
+Mary Ann Glendon, A World Made New: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
 
Recommended Background:  Historical Approaches in the West—Liberal and Marxist
 
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, ed. C. B. Macpherson  (Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett., 1980), chaps I, II (Of the State of Nature), III (Of  the State of War), IV (Of Slavery), V (Of Property), pp. 7-30.  
 
Ronald Dworkin, “Rights as Trumps,” in Jeremy Waldron, ed., Theories of Rights  (Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 153-67. 
 
Karl Marx, “Critique of the Gotha Program,” in Marx and Engels: Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy, ed. Lewis S. Feuer, pp. 112-132. 

V. I. Lenin, The State and Revolution, in Robert C. Tucker, ed., The Lenin Anthology (New York: W. W. Norton, 1975), chap. 5, pp. 369-384.  Available online at: http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev  (Note: only chapter 5 is required reading)
 
 
2/3       Refugees and state sovereignty as challenges to the universality of human rights
 
DVD in class:  UNHCR,  Working with Refugees (17.5 min.).

+David Hollenbach, ed., Driven from Home: Protecting the Rights of Forced Migrants, essays 1 (Susan Martin), 2 (Agbonkhianmeghe Orobator), 7 (Arash Abizadeh)
 
 Recommended: 

Political and legal resources:

António Guterres, “Millions Uprooted: Saving Refugees and the Displaced,”
Foreign Affairs 87.5 (Sept.-Oct. 2008): 90-99. 
 
1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees on line at http://www.unhcr.org/3b66c2aa10.html
UNHCR Background, “The 1951 Refugee Convention - Questions & Answers,” 2007 edition, online at: http://www.unhcr.org/3c0f495f4.html

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect (December 2001), Synopsis, and chapters  1, 2.   Online at:  http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/iciss-ciise/report-en.asp
 
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2009 Global Trends:
Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons.  Online at:  http://www.unhcr.org/4c11f0be9.html

Religious/theological resources:

Pontifical Council Cor Unum and Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees, “Refugees: the Challenge to Solidarity,”1992, available on the internet at this URL:
http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/corunum/documents/rc_pc_corunum_doc_25061992_refugees_en.html

National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Office for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees, Today’s Immigrants and Refugees: A Christian Understanding, essays by Miller and Hoppe pp. 1-42.

Drew Christiansen, SJ, “Sacrament of Unity: Ethical Issues in Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees,” in National Conference of Catholic Bishops, Office for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees, Today’s Immigrants and Refugees: A Christian Understanding, 81-114.

On Campus Event Feb. 4, 12:30—2:00 p.m. Boston Room, Corcoran Commons
CHRIJ Conversations at Lunch
Janice Raymond, Professor of Women’s Studies, University of Massachusetts, discussion of The Trafficking-Migration Nexus: Links and Divergencies

2/10     Legal considerations regarding human rights, with special reference to
Deportation and asylum  

Note: Guest lecturer will come at 12:45. So this class will begin with student presentation on a practical issue, namely:

Presentation: Rights-based responses to humanitarian crises.
 
Guest presentation:  Daniel Kanstroom, JD, LLM, Boston College Law School, CHRIJ Associate Director

Reading:

Daniel Kanstroom. (2010). Draft (excerpts), AFTERMATH: DEPORTATION, THE RULE OF LAW, and the NEW AMERICAN DIASPORA, (forthcoming 2011) Oxford University Press.

+Daniel Kanstroom, Loving Humanity While Accepting People: A Critique and a Cautious Affirmation of the “Political” in U.S. Asylum and Refugee Law; in David Hollenbach, SJ, ed., DRIVEN FROM HOME: PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF FORCED MIGRANTS (Georgetown U. Press 2009)

In re R-A, BIA Interim Decision 3403 (1999)

8 USC 1101(a) (EXCERPTS)

Refugee law practice exercise
 
2/17    Human Rights, Cultural Diversity, and the Unity of Humanity
 
+Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers.
 
Presentation on a particular NGO and its work (e.g. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Committee of the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders) See websites of Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, etc.
 
  And/Or: Presentation on the debate about Asian values and human rights
 

On Campus event Thursday, Feb. 24, 2011 | 7:00 p.m., Heights Room, Corcoran Commons
(Students are expected to attend since this lecture is very relevant to the themes of the seminar):

“International Human Rights and Democratic Sovereignty: The Contemporary Debates”
Professor Seyla Benhabib, the Eugene Meyer Professor of Political Science and Philosophy at Yale University;  author of The Rights of Others. Aliens, Citizens and Residents (2004) and co-editor of Mobility and Immobility. Gender, Borders and Citizenship (2009).

 

2/24     Human Rights and Forced Migration:  Environmental Threats and Disasters
 
Guest presentation:  Maryanne Loughry, PhD, CHRIJ Visiting Scholar. 

Tentative readings:

Jean François Durieux. (6 April 2009). Climate Change and Forced Migration Hotspots:  From Humanitarian Response to Area-wide Adaptation.  Bonn Climate Talks.

Walter Kälin (2008). The Climate Change-Displacement Nexus. http://www.brookings.edu/speeches/2008/0716_climate_change_kalin.aspx?p=1

UNHCR: Climate change, natural disasters and human displacement: A UNHCR perspective http://www.unhcr.org/climate

Additional Articles may be assigned

3/3       Some Recent Christian approaches to Human Rights
 
Desmond Tutu, “Preface,” in John Witte, Jr., and Johan D. van der Vyver, eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, pp. ix-xvi.
 
Brian Tierney, “Religious Rights: An Historical Perspective,” in John Witte and Johan D. van der Vyver, eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Religious Perspectives, pp. 17-45.
 
Luke Timothy Johnson, “Religious Rights and Christian Texts, in Witte  and van der Vyver, eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, pp. 65-95.
 
J. Bryan Hehir, “Religious Activism for Human Rights: A Christian Case Study,” in John Witte, Jr., and Johan D. van der Vyver, eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, pp. 97-120.
 
Ignacio Ellacuria, “Human Rights in A Divided Society,” in Alfred Hennelly and John Langan, eds., Human Rights in the Americas: The Struggle for Consensus, pp. 52-65. 
 
Recommended:
 
Roger Ruston, Human Rights and the Image of God,
 
Walter J. Harrelson, The Ten Commandments and Human Rights, Preface, and Parts Two and Three.
 
Brian Tierney, The Idea of Natural Rights: Studies on Natural Rights, Natural Law and Church Law, 1150-1625.
 
David Hollenbach, Claims in Conflict: Retrieving and Renewing the Catholic Human Rights Tradition, chap. 2. 
 
Jürgen Moltmann, On Human Dignity: Political Theology and Ethics, chs.
1 and 2.
 
Max Stackhouse, Creeds, Societies, and Human Rights (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1984).
 
Presentation: The role of the Catholic church in human rights struggles in El Salvador,

And/Or:     

Presentation: The ecumenical Christian community's contribution to the struggle for human rights in South Africa
  

On Campus Event: Monday, March 7, 2011 | 7:00 p.m.
Law School campus, East Wing 115
Bob Drinan: The Controversial Life of the First Catholic Priest Elected to Congress Students urged to attend since Fr. Robert Drinan was a scholar and advocate of human rights


Raymond Schroth, S.J., author of a new book on Robert Drinan, S.J., analyzes the Congressman's role as a priest, legal educator, and political figure. Respondents include Congressman Barney Frank (D-MA); political blogger Jerome Grossman, who was chairman of Fr. Drinan's Congressional campaign; and Gregory Kalscheur, S.J., associate professor at Boston College Law School. Law School Professor Sanford Katz moderates.

3/10     No class, spring break
           
Note: The order of the sessions scheduled for 3/17, 3/31, and 4/7 may be shifted if we have a visiting presentation by John Katunga Murhala, Regional Technical Advisor- Peacebuilding and Justice, Catholic Relief Services, Eastern Africa Region. We should know if Katunga can come within the first few weeks of the course. If a change is made, it will include changing the date of the presentations scheduled for these dates.

3/17 Developments in Islam
 
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 1990, available online at: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html
 
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, “Islamic Foundations of Religious Human Rights,” in John Witte, Jr., and Johan D. van der Vyver, editors, Religious Human Rights in Global Perspectives: Religious Perspectives. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1996, pp. 337-359.  Available online at:  http://els449.law.emory.edu/aannaim/pdfiles/dwnld15.pdf
 
World Islamic Front Statement, “Jihad against Jews and Crusaders,” 23 February 1998 (fatwa issued by Usama bin Laden and his associates).  Available online at:  http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/980223-fatwa.htm
 
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, “Why Should Muslims Abandon Jihad? Human Rights and the Future of International Law,” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 5 (2006) pp. 785 – 797.  Available online at: http://els449.law.emory.edu/aannaim/pdfiles/why_should.pdf

Recommended:
 
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Toward and Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law.
 
Riffat Hassan, “Rights of Women Within Islamic Communities,” in Witte and van der Vyver, eds., Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, pp. 361-386.
 
Donna E. Arzt, “The Treatment of Religious Dissidents Under Classical and
Contemporary Islamic Law, in Witte and van der Vyver, eds.,
Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective, pp. 387-453.
                       
Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Islam and Human Rights, fourth edition.
 
Ann Elizabeth Mayer, “Clashing Human Rights Priorities: How the United States and Muslim Countries Selectively Use Provisions of International Human Rights Law,” published in India in 9 Satya Nilayam: Chennai Journal of Intercultural Philosophy 44 (2006): 44-77. Available online at:  http://lgst.wharton.upenn.edu/mayera/documents/satyanilayam06.pdf

  
Presentation:  Debates about US Policy regarding torture and interrogation
  

3/24     Gender Violence against Women in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations: Human Rights and International Justice

Guest lecture:  Prof. Brinton Lykes, Lynch School of Education, CHRIJ

Sally Merry (2009). “Introduction; Gender Violence as a Human Rights Violation.” In Gender Violence: A Cultural Perspective. Pp. 1-23; 77-99.

Binaifer Nowrojee (November, 2005). “Your Justice is Too Slow”: Will the ICTR Fail Rwanda’s Rape Victims?” United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, Occasional Paper.

+M. Brinton Lykes (2010). “No Easy Road to Freedom: Engendering and Enculturating Enforced Migration.” In Driven from Home: Human Rights and the New Realities of Forced Migration. Edited by David Hollenbach, SJ

David Carey Jr & M. Gabriela Torres (2010) “Precursors to feminicide: Guatemalan Women in a Vortex of Violence.” Latin American Research Review. VoL 45, No.3, pp. 142-164

Ricardo Falla (2008). “María: Mother, Wife, Indigenous Woman, Emigrant and Voluntary Returnee,” Excerpts from Migración transnacional retornada, Editorial Avancso, Guatemala, ENVIO.

 
3/31     War, Conflict, and the Human Rights of Displaced People

+David Hollenbach, ed., Driven from Home, chapters by Maryanne Loughry (“The Experience e of Displacement by Conflict: The Plight of the Iraqi Refugees”), J. Bryan Hehir (“The Ethics and Policy of War in Light of Displacement”), and Thomas Weiss (“Reinserting ‘Never’ into ‘Never Again’: Political Innovations and the Responsibility to Protect”), pp. 169-227.

Presentation:  Women’s human rights in the midst of conflict, e.g. the case of rape in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

On Campus event: April 1, 12:30-2:00 p.m., 21 Campanella Way, Room 328
CHRIJ Conversations at Lunch - Hope Lewis, Professor of Law, Northeastern University,
A Critical Insider’s Perspective on the Boston Principles on the Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights of Noncitizens

Prof. Lewis is a leading expert on public international law. A human rights scholar and advocate for more than two decades, she co-founded the Northeastern University law school's Program on Human Rights and the Global Economy.
 

4/7       Human rights in the face of deprivation

+Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, excerpts.
 
Recommended:
 
Henry Shue, Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence and U.S. Foreign Policy, second edition (Princeton Univ. Press, 1996), pp. 5-87, 153-180.
 
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2000.  Available online at:   http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2000/en/pdf/hdr_2000_ch1.pdf
 
Presentation:  a campaign related to economic rights, such as initiatives on debt relief, policies governing trade, investment, and loans. 
 
4/14     Presentation of student papers

4/21     No class—Easter holiday

4/28     Presentation of student papers

5/5     Presentation of student papers

If necessary, the time assigned for the exam, Saturday, May 14, 9-11:30 a.m., may also be used for the presentation of student papers.

Some possible bibliography for Presentations

2/10 Rights-based responses to humanitarian crises

International Committee of the Red Cross, The fundamental Principles of the ICRC,  http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jmft.htm
 
Sphere Project, The Humanitarian Charter, online at: http://www.sphereproject.org/dmdocuments/handbook/hdbkpdf/hdbk_hc.pdf
 
Hugo Slim, “Not Philanthropy but Rights: Rights-Based Humanitarianism and the Proper Politicisation of Humanitarian Philosophy in War,” online at:  http://www.odi.org.uk/hpg/confpapers/slim_new.pdf

Barbara E, Harrell-Bond. "Can Humanitarian Work with Refugees Be Humane?" Human Rights Quarterly 24, Number 1 (February 2002): 51-85.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Frequently Asked Questions on a Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation,” 2006, online at:
http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FAQen.pdf
 
Ray Offenheiser and Susan Holcombe, “Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing a Rights-Based approach to Development: An Oxfam America Perspective.” Online at:
http://nvs.sagepub.com/content/32/2/268.full.pdf+html
 
Inter Agency Standing Committee, “Human Rights Guidance Note for Humanitarian Coordinators,” June, 2006, online at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/countries/field/docs/HRguidance-coordinators.pdf

2/17 A particular NGO and its work (e.g. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Committee of the Red Cross, Doctors without Borders)

See websites of Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, etc.

Jessica T. Mathews, Power Shift, Foreign Affairs, January/February 1997, 50-66.

Margaret E. Keck and Kathryn Sikkink, "Transnational Advocacy Networks in
International and Regional Politics," International Social Science Journal #159,
UNESCO (March 1999): 89-101.
 
“Transnational Advocacy Networks and International Policy,” website of the Center on Law and Globalization, at: http://clg.portalxm.com/library/keytext.cfm?keytext_id=113

2/17 The debate about Asian values and human rights

Fareed Zakaria, “A Conversation with Lee Kuan Yew,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 1994, online at: http://www.lee-kuan-yew.com/leekuanyew-freedzakaria.html

Kim Dae Jung, “Is Culture Destiny? The Myth of Asia's Anti-Democratic Values,”  Foreign Affairs, November/December 1994, online at:
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50557/kim-dae-jung/is-culture-destiny-the-myth-of-asias-anti-democratic-values?page=show
 
Amartya Sen, “Human Rights and Asian Values,” 1997, Sixteenth Morgenthau Memorial Lecture on Ethics & Foreign Policy,   Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs. Online at:
http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/resources/publications/morgenthau/254.html/_res/id=sa_File1/254_sen.pdf

Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom, Chap. 10, pp. 227-248.
 
China's Charter 08, issued December 10, 2008, trans. by Perry Link, New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 1, January 15, 2009, online at: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/22210

Nobel Peace Prize for Liu Xiaobo, Presentation Speech by Thorbjørn Jagland, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, Oslo, 10 December 2010 (under link “Read the Presentation Speech”), and Liu Xiaobo “I Have No Enemies: My Final Statement” (under the link “Read Liu Xiabo's Appell”), both online at: http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/award_ceremonies/video/ceremony_oslo/2010/index.html  

 William Theodore De Bary, Asian Values and Human Rights: A Confucian Communitarian Perspective.

3/3 The role of the Catholic Church in human rights struggles in El Salvador

Jon Sobrino, “The Cost of Speaking the Truth: The Martyrs of Central America, El Salvador,” Journal for Peace and Justice Studies, 3, no. 2 (1991), pp. 1-11.

Jon Sobrino, Ignacio Ellacuria, et. al, Companions of Jesus: The Jesuit Martyrs of El Salvador.

UN Security Council. Report of the UN Truth Commission on El Salvador, Equipo Nizkor, 1993. Available at http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/salvador/informes/truth.html (accessed June 24, 2008).

Victoria Burnett, “Rights lawyers file Spanish court case on El Salvador killings”. International Herald Tribune, November 13, 2008. Available at http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/11/13/america/spain.php (accessed November 20, 2008).

Stephen Pope, “The Convergence of Forgiveness and Justice: Lessons from El
Salvador," Theological Studies 64, no. 4 (Dec. 2003), 812-835.

Jeane Kirkpatrick, “Dictatorships and Double Standards,” Commentary, November 1979, online at:
https://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/dictatorships--double-standards-6189?page=all
Jeane Kirkpatrick, “Establishing a Viable Human Rights Policy,” Third World Traveler, 1981. Online at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Human%20Rights%20Documents/Kirkpatrick_HRPolicy.html

3/3 The ecumenical Christian community's contribution to the struggle for human rights in South Africa

The Kairos Document, Challenge to the Church: A Theological Comment on the Political Crisis in South Africa (1985), available online at: http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/official%20docs/kairos-document.htm
or  http://www.bethel.edu/~letnie/AfricanChristianity/SAKairos.html
 
See also for further background: Charles Villa-Vicencio, A Theology of Reconstruction: Nation Building and Human Rights.
 
John De Gruchy, Christianity and Democracy: A Theology for a Just World Order  (Cambridge University Press, 1995).
           
John XXIII, Pacem in Terris (Peace on Earth), available online at:
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_xxiii/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem_en.html

Vatican Council II, Dignitatis Humanae (Declaration on Religious Freedom), available online at:
http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/
documents/vat-ii_decl_19651207_dignitatis-humanae_en.html
 
Pope John Paul II, “Respect for Human Rights: Secret of True Peace,” World Day of Peace Message, Jan. 1, 1999.  Available online at:
http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/messages/peace/
documents/hf_jp-ii_mes_14121998_xxxii-world-day-for-peace_en.html 

3/17 Debates about US Policy regarding torture and interrogation

Legal and philosophical approaches:

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, esp. arts 1-5.  Online at:  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cat.htm

National Security Archive, The Interrogation Documents: Debating U.S. Policy and Methods.  Documents originating from the White House, the Pentagon and the Justice Department concerning the Administration's interrogation policies. Online at:  http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB127
 
David Luban, “Liberalism, Torture, and the Ticking Bomb,” 91 Virginia Law Review (October 2005):  1425-1461. Online at: http://www.virginialawreview.org/content/pdfs/91/1425.pdf

Kenneth Roth, “After Guantánamo: The Case Against Preventive Detention,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008. 
 
Daniel Kanstroom, “On Waterboarding: Legal Interpretation and the Continuing Struggle for Human Rights,” Boston College Third World Law Journal 28, no. 2 (Spring 2008): 269-288.   Online at: http://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/schools/law/lawreviews/journals/bctwj/28_2/twlj_28_2_web.pdf
 
Philippe Sands, Torture Team: Rumsfeld’s Memo and the Betrayal of American Values, 2008.
 
Jane Mayer, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on American Ideals, 2007.
 
Video interview with Jane Mayer on her book The Dark Side, from Democracy Now, online at:  http://www.democracynow.org/2008/7/18/the_dark_side_jane_mayer_on
 
Theological/religious responses:
 
Torture is a Moral Issue: A Catholic Study Guide, available online at: http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/stoptorture

George Hunsinger, ed., Torture Is a Moral Issue: Christians, Jews, Muslims, and People of Conscience Speak Out.
 
Jeremy Waldron, “What Can Christian Teaching Add to the Debate about Torture?” Theology Today 63 No. 23 (October 2006): 330-343.
 
Jean Porter, “Torture and the Christian Conscience: A Response to Jeremy Waldron,” Scottish Journal of Theology 61, 3 (2008): 340–358.  
 
Bishop Thomas G. Wenski, Chairman, US Catholic Bishops Committee on International Policy, Letter to U.S. Senators on Torture, December 17, 2007, online at: http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/international/Wenski%20Ltr%20to%20Senate%20re%20Torture%2012-14-07%20LHEAD.pdf

3/31 Human rights in the midst of conflict, e.g. the case of rape in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

Harvard Humanitarian Initiative with support from Oxfam America, “’Now the World Is without Me’: An Investigation of Sexual Violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo,” April 2010, online at: http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/now-world-without-me

International Crisis Group, “Conflict in Congo,” on line at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/key-issues/conflict-in-congo.aspx

International Crisis Group, “Gender and Conflict,” see esp. further references. Online at:
http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/key-issues/gender-and-conflict.aspx

Susan Moller Okin et. al, Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?

4/7 A campaign related to economic rights, such as initiatives on debt relief, policies governing trade, investment, and loans

Jubilee Drop the Debt: http://www.jubileedebtcampaign.org.uk 
 
Oxfam International: http://www.oxfam.org  and Oxfam America:
http://www.oxfamamerica.org , campaigns on development and overcoming poverty.   See esp.:
The Global Economic Crisis and Developing Countries, online at: http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/global-economic-crisis-and-developing-countries

Duncan Green, From Poverty to Power at http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/from_poverty_to_power

21st Century Aid Recognizing success and tackling failure at
http://www.oxfam.org/en/policy/21st-century-aid
 
Pope Benedict XVI, world Day of Peace Message, 1 January, 2009, “Fighting Poverty to Build Peace,” online at: http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/messages/peace/documents/hf_ben-xvi_mes_20081208_xlii-world-day-peace_en.htmlb

US Catholic Bishops and Catholic Relief services global anti-poverty initiative, Catholics Confront Global Poverty.  Material available online at:  http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/globalpoverty