Adamson, John William. English Education, 1789-1902 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964; first published 1930).
Among several other mentions of Kingsley, Adamson refers to his advocacy of improved educational opportunities for women.

Females; Education; Muscular Christianity

Archer, Richard Lawrence.  Secondary Education in the Nineteenth Century (London: Cass, 1966).
Archer discusses the educational thought and practice of Kingsley and their subsequent influence on British education.  He stresses the connection for Kingsley between religion and education; both served the same end.  Moreover, science in the curriculum was essential and was in no respect against the teaching of religion.  His ideal of mens sana in corpore sano went hand in hand with his espousal of muscular Christianity.  He detested “the identification of bodily feebleness with spiritual strength” (200).  Archer also examines Kingsley’s important role in the sanitary movement and his work in having hygienic instruction in schools.

Education; Muscular Christianity; Sanitation; Science.

Avery, Gillian (with the assistance of Angela Bull). Nineteenth Century Children: Heroes and Heroines in English Children’s Stories 1780-1900 (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965).
Though Kingsley in real life did not like the punishing of children, believing that misbehavior often has a physical cause and that punishment can undermine a child’s relationship with his parents, punishment is a major theme in The Water-Babies.  Avery declares that Kingsley wishes to point the moral that punishment is the natural consequence of sin.  She also states that education is the primary purpose of The Water-Babies, “the education of the child to become the honest English gentleman that was Kingsley’s ideal” (49).  Holding that education and teaching are quite distinct, Kingsley depicts Tom’s trials and subsequent learning and the final attainment of grace as constituting his true education.

The Water-Babies; Punishment; Children; Education.

Barnard, H. C.  A History of English Education From 1760.  2nd ed.  (First published 1947) (London: University of London Press, 1961).
Barnard provides a very brief overview of Kingsley the educationist.  He declares that Kingsley was a strong advocate of science in the school curriculum and held that it complemented the study of religion.  Moreover, he was a firm believer that a knowledge of science was essential for progress in the hygienic and sanitary reform movement.

Education; Sanitation.

Brock, W. H.  "Glaucus: Kingsley and the Seaside Naturalists," Cahiers Victoriens et Edouardiens Vol. 3 (1976): 25-36.
Brock examines Kingsley the seaside naturalist, placing him in the context of the contemporary scientific community.  Though much of his work, for example Glaucus, was derivative and popular in nature, he was a good amateur naturalist.  For two thirds of the century there were few professional natural historians.  Brock sees one of Kingsley's most significant contributions to science being his advocacy for increased science education and his desire that it be a suitable occupation for all social classes.  Science might prove an appropriate entrée for advancement into higher society for an individual barred by more traditional societal conventions.  “. . . Kingsley became a powerful spokesman for science education at a time when this was becoming an important issue among the professional scientific community” (34).

Science; Education; Natural History; Glaucus.

Charques, R. D., Mrs.  “Kingsley as Children’s Writer,” Times Literary Supplement Vol. 2576 (15 June, 1951): i
In this short article, Charques discusses Kingsley's writings for children as well as his attitudes towards and his understanding of children.  She also touches briefly on his educational views.

Children; The Water-Babies; Education.

Curtis, S. J., and M. E. A. Boultwood.  An Introductory History of English Education Since 1800 (London: University Tutorial Press, 1962).
A very brief overview of Kingsley as educationalist.  Declares that because of his early connections with St. Mark’s Training College, Chelsea, he tended to have greater awareness of practical educational matters than some of the more subject oriented educationalists.


Hawley, John C., S.J.  “The Muscular Christian as Schoolmarm,” in Kristine Ottesen Garrigan, Victorian Scandals: Represenations of Gender and Class (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1992): 134-156.
Hawley examines Kingsley's views on the role of women in society, focusing in particular on their educational provision. Believing that the deliberately inadequate education of many young middle-class women had rendered them just as much societal victims as the children of the poor, Kingsley argued that the education of the former must be improved. Hawley declares that Kingsley held a middle ground between the conservatives who viewed women's education as essentially decorative and the progressives who considered that the male and female curriculum should be identical: "Kingsley's implied compromise endorses subjects that would turn out intelligent social workers rather than stereotypical bluestockings" (139).  Hawley also states that Kingsley's work and writings supporting improved education for women was not complemented by support for all aspects of the women's movement.  Believing in essential differences between men and women and ultimately ambivalent on the Woman Question, Kingsley was critical of women's suffrage and caricatured those women who refused to allow men to lead the movement for their rights.

Education; Women's Movement; Females.

Hawley, John C., S.J.  “The Water Babies as Catechetical Paradigm,” Children's Literature Association QuarterlyVol. 14, No. 1 (Spring 1989): 19-21.
Hawley declares that The Water-Babies has two principle functions, to entertain and to teach.  The goal of education for Kingsley was ultimately a religious one.  Little Tom’s adventures, his evolutionary progress, the lessons learned all end in religious salvation.  Kingsley also uses The Water-Babies to show that science and evolution can co-exist with religion.  “With the publication of this novel he offers his most attractive, deceptively simple presentation of the argument that all purely scientific explanations of reality would benefit by being placed in the larger context of Christian revelation” (20).

The Water-Babies; Religion; Education; Science; Evolution.

Leavis, Q. D. “The Water Babies,” Children's Literature in Education Vol. 23 (Winter 1976): 155-163.
Leavis regrets that the “excitingly written and splendidly imaginative Victorian classic” The Water-Babies is no longer read by children (155).  She argues that its literary merits justify that it be kept in circulation and suggests various ways it might be used in modern children’s education.  “The combination of drama, saga, nonsense, science, magic, poetry and comedy Kingsley invented is irresistible and became a mode adopted by writers for children in the later 19th and the 20th centuries with great success” (163).

The Water-Babies; Sambourne, Linley; Illustrations; Children; Education.

Leinster-MacKay, Donald and Finkelstein, Mark.  “‘Jean Paul’ Richter, Charles Kingsley and Education: A Case for European Influence on English Education?" ANZHES Journal Vol. 11, No. 2 (1982): 37-47.
Leinster-MacKay and Finkelstein examine Kingsley the educationist.  They argue that it is likely that Kingsley’s educational views may have been strongly influenced by those of Jean Paul Richter (1763-1825).  They focus on four principal themes in establishing the links: a) stress on the vernacular rather than the classics; b) the child’s need of a loving environment; c) manliness and moral education; d) the education of females.  In these areas both Richter and Kingsley “were largely in a state of intellectual congruence and as such, show in no uncertain manner, a similar Rousseauvian flavour as heirs to the naturalistic philosophy of education” (46).

Education; Richter, Jean Paul.

Rapple, Brendan A.  “The Educational Thought of Charles Kingsley (1819-75),” Historical Studies in Education Vol. 9, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 46-64.
Rapple writes that though Kingsley’s educational works were not as considerable as those of such contemporaries as Kay-Shuttleworth, Matthew Arnold, Spencer, or Huxley, they were still significant.  However, they have generally received scant scholarly attention, with the exception of his muscular Christianity activities.  Contending that Kingsley the educationist requires a more complete treatment, Rapple, “as a vanguard to the needed account,” examines Kingsley’s “attitude to the young, his staunch belief that the State should be deeply implicated in the provision of education, the relation between Kingsley's 'Muscular Christianity' and his views on education, his fervent conviction that science should figure more noticeably in the curriculum, his belief that hygiene and sanitary knowledge should be universally taught, and his advocacy of female education at all levels” (47).

Education; Children; Christian Socialism; Muscular Christianity; Science; Sanitation; Females.

Schilling, Bernard N.  “Kingsley,” in Human Dignity and the Great Victorians (New York: Columbia University Press, 1946): 96-122.
Schilling examines Kingsley's work as a humanitarian and his efforts to dignify the life of England's poor.  "Kingsley achieved a working synthesis between his religion and his radicalism; he made it seem as if he had to be a humanitarian reformer because of the implications which he saw in religion, not in spite of them" (96).  Schilling discusses Kingsley's work on behalf of sanitary reform and his campaign against the terrible conditions of the sweated tailoring trade, stressing Kingsley's belief that many societal problems had their underlying cause in laissez-faire capitalism. He also considers Kingsley's advocacy of popular medical instruction and of cooperative movements, his plans to make art, amusement, country life and education more available to the public, and his staunch promotion of public education.  Though Kingsley became increasingly conservative and came to embrace a form of feudalism as he aged, Schilling concludes that he "bore the mark of all great humanitarians - the union of compassion, humaneness, and optimism" (122).

Overview; Sanitation; Social and Political Views; Religion; Education; Christian Socialism.

Tozer, Malcolm. "Charles Kingsley and the 'Muscular Christian' Ideal of Manliness," Physical Education Review Vol. 8, No. 1 (1985): 35-40.
Tozer sketches Kingsley’s life and works paying particular attention to his views on manliness and its relation to muscular Christianity.  He declares that Kingsley was the individual who was most responsible for acquainting the English with the Romantic, Christian and Chivalric ideal of manliness, the ideal that had such a strong influence on the subsequent development of games and outdoor pursuits in education.

Overview; Manliness; Muscular Christianity; Education.

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