|Adamson, John William. English
Education, 1789-1902 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964;
first published 1930).
Among several other mentions of Kingsley, Adamson refers to his advocacy
of improved educational opportunities for women.
Archer, Richard Lawrence. Secondary Education
in the Nineteenth Century (London: Cass, 1966).
Archer discusses the educational thought and practice of Kingsley and
their subsequent influence on British education. He stresses the
connection for Kingsley between religion and education; both served the
same end. Moreover, science in the curriculum was essential and was
in no respect against the teaching of religion. His ideal of mens
sana in corpore sano went hand in hand with his espousal of muscular
Christianity. He detested “the identification of bodily feebleness
with spiritual strength” (200). Archer also examines Kingsley’s important
role in the sanitary movement and his work in having hygienic instruction
Christianity; Sanitation; Science.
Avery, Gillian (with the assistance of Angela Bull).
Century Children: Heroes and Heroines in English Children’s Stories 1780-1900
(London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965).
Though Kingsley in real life did not like the punishing of children,
believing that misbehavior often has a physical cause and that punishment
can undermine a child’s relationship with his parents, punishment is a
major theme in The Water-Babies. Avery declares that Kingsley
wishes to point the moral that punishment is the natural consequence of
sin. She also states that education is the primary purpose of The
Water-Babies, “the education of the child to become the honest English
gentleman that was Kingsley’s ideal” (49). Holding that education
and teaching are quite distinct, Kingsley depicts Tom’s trials and subsequent
learning and the final attainment of grace as constituting his true education.
Barnard, H. C. A History of English Education
From 1760. 2nd ed. (First published 1947) (London: University
of London Press, 1961).
Barnard provides a very brief overview of Kingsley the educationist.
He declares that Kingsley was a strong advocate of science in the school
curriculum and held that it complemented the study of religion. Moreover,
he was a firm believer that a knowledge of science was essential for progress
in the hygienic and sanitary reform movement.
Brock, W. H. "Glaucus: Kingsley and the
Seaside Naturalists," Cahiers Victoriens et Edouardiens Vol. 3 (1976):
Brock examines Kingsley the seaside naturalist, placing him in the
context of the contemporary scientific community. Though much of
his work, for example Glaucus, was derivative and popular in nature,
he was a good amateur naturalist. For two thirds of the century there
were few professional natural historians. Brock sees one of Kingsley's
most significant contributions to science being his advocacy for increased
science education and his desire that it be a suitable occupation for all
social classes. Science might prove an appropriate entrée
for advancement into higher society for an individual barred by more traditional
societal conventions. “. . . Kingsley became a powerful spokesman
for science education at a time when this was becoming an important issue
among the professional scientific community” (34).
Charques, R. D., Mrs. “Kingsley as Children’s
Writer,” Times Literary Supplement Vol. 2576 (15 June, 1951): i
In this short article, Charques discusses Kingsley's writings for children
as well as his attitudes towards and his understanding of children.
She also touches briefly on his educational views.
Curtis, S. J., and M. E. A. Boultwood. An
Introductory History of English Education Since 1800 (London: University
Tutorial Press, 1962).
A very brief overview of Kingsley as educationalist. Declares
that because of his early connections with St. Mark’s Training College,
Chelsea, he tended to have greater awareness of practical educational matters
than some of the more subject oriented educationalists.
Hawley, John C., S.J. “The Muscular Christian
as Schoolmarm,” in Kristine Ottesen Garrigan, Victorian Scandals: Represenations
of Gender and Class (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1992): 134-156.
Hawley examines Kingsley's views on the role of women in society, focusing
in particular on their educational provision. Believing that the deliberately
inadequate education of many young middle-class women had rendered them
just as much societal victims as the children of the poor, Kingsley argued
that the education of the former must be improved. Hawley declares that
Kingsley held a middle ground between the conservatives who viewed women's
education as essentially decorative and the progressives who considered
that the male and female curriculum should be identical: "Kingsley's implied
compromise endorses subjects that would turn out intelligent social workers
rather than stereotypical bluestockings" (139). Hawley also states
that Kingsley's work and writings supporting improved education for women
was not complemented by support for all aspects of the women's movement.
Believing in essential differences between men and women and ultimately
ambivalent on the Woman Question, Kingsley was critical of women's suffrage
and caricatured those women who refused to allow men to lead the movement
for their rights.
Hawley, John C., S.J. “The Water Babies
as Catechetical Paradigm,” Children's Literature Association QuarterlyVol.
14, No. 1 (Spring 1989): 19-21.
Hawley declares that The Water-Babies has two principle functions,
to entertain and to teach. The goal of education for Kingsley was
ultimately a religious one. Little Tom’s adventures, his evolutionary
progress, the lessons learned all end in religious salvation. Kingsley
also uses The Water-Babies to show that science and evolution can
co-exist with religion. “With the publication of this novel he offers
his most attractive, deceptively simple presentation of the argument that
all purely scientific explanations of reality would benefit by being placed
in the larger context of Christian revelation” (20).
Leavis, Q. D. “The Water Babies,” Children's
Literature in Education Vol. 23 (Winter 1976): 155-163.
Leavis regrets that the “excitingly written and splendidly imaginative
Victorian classic” The Water-Babies is no longer read by children
(155). She argues that its literary merits justify that it be kept
in circulation and suggests various ways it might be used in modern children’s
education. “The combination of drama, saga, nonsense, science, magic,
poetry and comedy Kingsley invented is irresistible and became a mode adopted
by writers for children in the later 19th and the 20th centuries with great
Leinster-MacKay, Donald and Finkelstein, Mark.
“‘Jean Paul’ Richter, Charles Kingsley and Education: A Case for European
Influence on English Education?" ANZHES Journal Vol. 11, No. 2 (1982):
Leinster-MacKay and Finkelstein examine Kingsley the educationist.
They argue that it is likely that Kingsley’s educational views may have
been strongly influenced by those of Jean Paul Richter (1763-1825).
They focus on four principal themes in establishing the links: a) stress
on the vernacular rather than the classics; b) the child’s need of a loving
environment; c) manliness and moral education; d) the education of females.
In these areas both Richter and Kingsley “were largely in a state of intellectual
congruence and as such, show in no uncertain manner, a similar Rousseauvian
flavour as heirs to the naturalistic philosophy of education” (46).
Rapple, Brendan A. “The Educational Thought of
Charles Kingsley (1819-75),” Historical Studies in Education Vol.
9, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 46-64.
Rapple writes that though Kingsley’s educational works were not as
considerable as those of such contemporaries as Kay-Shuttleworth, Matthew
Arnold, Spencer, or Huxley, they were still significant. However,
they have generally received scant scholarly attention, with the exception
of his muscular Christianity activities. Contending that Kingsley
the educationist requires a more complete treatment, Rapple, “as a vanguard
to the needed account,” examines Kingsley’s “attitude to the young, his
staunch belief that the State should be deeply implicated in the provision
of education, the relation between Kingsley's 'Muscular Christianity' and
his views on education, his fervent conviction that science should figure
more noticeably in the curriculum, his belief that hygiene and sanitary
knowledge should be universally taught, and his advocacy of female education
at all levels” (47).
Socialism; Muscular Christianity;
Schilling, Bernard N. “Kingsley,”
in Human Dignity and the Great Victorians (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1946): 96-122.
Schilling examines Kingsley's work as a humanitarian and his efforts
to dignify the life of England's poor. "Kingsley achieved a working
synthesis between his religion and his radicalism; he made it seem as if
he had to be a humanitarian reformer because of the implications which
he saw in religion, not in spite of them" (96). Schilling discusses
Kingsley's work on behalf of sanitary reform and his campaign against the
terrible conditions of the sweated tailoring trade, stressing Kingsley's
belief that many societal problems had their underlying cause in laissez-faire
capitalism. He also considers Kingsley's advocacy of popular medical instruction
and of cooperative movements, his plans to make art, amusement, country
life and education more available to the public, and his staunch promotion
of public education. Though Kingsley became increasingly conservative
and came to embrace a form of feudalism as he aged, Schilling concludes
that he "bore the mark of all great humanitarians - the union of compassion,
humaneness, and optimism" (122).
and Political Views;
Tozer, Malcolm. "Charles Kingsley and the 'Muscular
Christian' Ideal of Manliness," Physical Education Review Vol. 8,
No. 1 (1985): 35-40.
Tozer sketches Kingsley’s life and works paying particular attention
to his views on manliness and its relation to muscular Christianity.
He declares that Kingsley was the individual who was most responsible for
acquainting the English with the Romantic, Christian and Chivalric ideal
of manliness, the ideal that had such a strong influence on the subsequent
development of games and outdoor pursuits in education.