Ralph Waldo Emerson
Wolff, Robert Lee.  Gains and Losses: Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England (New York and London: Garland, 1977).
Wolff praises Hypatia’s “vivid and engaging prose style”, its historical authenticity, the depiction of Hypatia, and its readability.  He writes that Kingsley had two main intentions in writing the novel. He was criticizing Transcendentalism, held by Emerson and others, wishing “to illustrate the dangers of the intellectual arrogance which falsely persuaded individual human beings that they could seek and find their own deity, ignoring the Church and religious tradition” (274).  Also, suspicious of the intellect and believing that the only path to faith was through emotional commitment, Kingsley was attacking the Tractarians and converts like Newman whom he held were “groping in the dead past for outworn dogmas and practices” (275).

Hypatia; Emerson; Transcendentalism; Catholicism; Celibacy.