Henry James
Bertonneau, Thomas F.  “Like Hypatia Before the Mob: Desire, Resentment, and Sacrifice in The Bostonians (An Anthropoetics),” Nineteenth-Century Literature Vol. 53, No. 1 (June 1998): 56-90.
Bertonneau disagrees with the conventional contemporary reading of the scene in Hypatia where Hypatia is murdered by a Christian mob.  Such reading is that the mob is a true representation of Christianity and that Kingsley is castigating the hypocrisy and brutality of the new religion.  Rather, Bertonneau argues, just because the crowd thinks of itself as Christian and acts in the name of this religion, it does not mean that it is in fact truly Christian.  “The truth, in Kingsley’s scene, is that the sacrificial impulse comes not from Jesus (not from Christianity) but from the mob, which is motivated by passion, not by compassion . . . . The mob enacts the very impulse, namely sacrifice, that Jesus would suspend” (89).

Hypatia; Catholicism; History; Henry James.

Haralson, Eric.  “James’s The American: A (New)man is Being Beaten,” American Literature Vol. 64, No. 3 (September 1992): 475-495.
Haralson examines the influence of Kingsley’s notions of manliness and muscular Christianity on Henry James’s characterization in his novels, particularly the representation of Christopher Newman in The American (1877).  Though James in his youth was drawn to aspects of the manly hero, his views were by no means identical to those of Kingsley.  “To read James’s four reviews of Kingsley between 1865 and 1877 . . .  is to watch him struggle to come to terms with a youthful enthusiasm that was fast fading” (477).  In particular, Kingsley’s anti-intellectual strain in his heroes was objectionable to James.  Still, as Haralson treats at length, James used the Kingsleyan hero as a point of departure in his depiction of Christopher Newman.  Haralson also briefly sketches the influence of Kingsley’ manly hero on James’s portrayal of such protagonists as Caspar Goodwood in The Portrait of a Lady (1881), Basil Ransom in The Bostonians (1886), and Nick Dormer in The Tragic Muse (1890).

Manliness; Muscular Christianity; James, Henry.

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