|Brown, W. Henry. “Maurice,
Kingsley and Hughes,” The Manchester Quarterly Vol. 51 (1925): 253-68.
Brown considers the life and works of Kingsley interweaving them with
those of Maurice and Hughes. All is laudatory with little critical
Harris, Styron. “The 'Muscular Novel': Medium
of a Victorian Ideal,” Tennessee Philological Bulletin Vol. 27 (1990):
Harris discusses the notion of “muscular Christianity”. It is
epitomized in three dominant figures of the novels: Amyas Leigh in Westward
Ho!, Tom Thurnall in Two Years Ago, and Hereward in Hereward
the Wake. Harris also discusses Kingsley’s influence on Thomas
Hughes and on Hughes’s portrayal of muscular Christianity in his novels
Brown’s Schooldays, The Scouring of White Horse, and Tom Brown at
Oxford. Both novelists took care to distinguish the muscular
Christian from one who is mere muscle and both abhorred the hero of George
Alfred Lawrence’s novel Guy Livingstone who personified “muscularity
without Christianity or moral considerations”. Nevertheless, Harris
agrees with David Newsome that despite their broader meaning of muscular
Christianity, “the muscular novel according to Kingsley and Hughes contributed
to the immense vogue of athletics from the late sixties onwards” (11).
Christianity; Hughes, Thomas; Westward
Ho!; Two Years Ago; Hereward
Redmond, Gerald. “Before Hughes and Kingsley:
The Origins and Evolution of ‘Muscular Christianity’ in English Children’s
Literature,” Sporting Fictions: Proceedings of a Conference Held at
the University of Birmingham (September, 1981): 8-35.
From a thorough examination of earlier children’s literature, Redmond
argues that the presentation of the notion of muscular Christianity in
the novels of Kingsley and Hughes is the culmination of a trend that began
in the eighteenth century. Contrary to much opinion, neither Kingsley
nor Hughes were the founders of this doctrine. Redmond contends that
certain elements of muscular Christianity may be found in the works of
such authors as Rousseau, George Mogridge, William Howitt, William Clarke,
William Martin, S.G. Goodrich, Frederick Marryat, Maria Edgeworth, Dorothy
Kilner, Harriet Martineau, Catherine Sinclair, among others. “. .
. as far as muscular Christianity is concerned, Hughes and Kingsley may
have reaped the harvest, but the seeds were planted and the crop carefully
tended by many lesser-known laborers beforehand” (30).
Christianity; Hughes, Thomas.
Redmond, Gerald. "The First Tom Brown's Schooldays:
Origins and Evolution of ‘Muscular Christianity’ in Children’s Literature,
1762-1857," Quest Vol. 30 (Summer 1978): 4-18.
Redmond examines the origin and evolution of the notion of muscular
Christianity in children’s literature during the period 1762 to 1857.
He declares that elements of this notion may be found before Kingsley and
Hughes adopted it in such writers as Rousseau, Dorothy Kilner, George Mogridge,
William Howitt, William Clarke, William Martin, S. G. Goodrich, Maria Edgeworth,
Frederick Marryat, Harriet Martineau among others. The works of Hughes
and Kingsley might be considered as the climax of literary treatment of
muscular Christianity, “as the culmination of a gradual process of indoctrination
which began in the previous century” (8).
Christianity; Hughes, Thomas.
Rosen, David. "The Volcano and the Cathedral: Muscular
Christianity and the Origins of Primal Manliness," in Hall, Donald E. (ed.).
Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.:
Cambridge University Press, 1994): 17-44.
David Rosen provides a lengthy analysis of the development of Kingsley's
views on muscular Christianity and manliness. He stresses that these were
complex, many sided notions and that Kingsley's views on these topics,
as well as his practical involvement in complementary areas, continuously
evolved throughout his life. Rosen argues that among the many influences
on Kingsley's concept of manliness was the notion of Platonic thumos
Kingsley considered was a primal manly force, the root of all virtue and
which was manifested through sex, fighting, and morality. Rosen contends
that Kingsley's views on manliness and related topics were highly influential
and that diverse notions of Anglo-American masculinity from the mid-nineteenth
century to the present owe much to Kingsley.
Christianity; Sexuality; Plato;
Tozer, Malcolm. “Thomas Hughes: ‘Tom Brown’ versus
‘True Manliness’,” Physical Education Review Vol. 12, No. 1 (1989):
Tozer declares that Thomas Hughes’s Tom Brown’s Schooldays was
largely responsible for the emphasis of the physical in the definition
of the Victorian gentlemen and for the era’s “emerging clamour of hearty
athleticism” (44). Thus, Tozer contends, Hughes severely distorted
the far broader ideal of manliness of his Christian Socialist associates,
Charles Kingsley and F. D. Maurice.
Thomas; Muscular Christianity;