Thomas Huxley
Blinderman, Charles S.  “Huxley and Kingsley,” Victorian Newsletter No. 20 (1961): 25-28.
Blinderman studies the relationship between Kingsley and T. H. Huxley.  Both men enjoyed a close personal friendship.  However, Blinderman argues that despite such surface similarities as their mutual approval of determinism and Stoicism, their dislike of Positivism, their popularization of science, and the fact that both were charged with unorthodoxy, in certain fundamental respects, particularly their underlying attitudes to science and to religion, they were quite dissimilar and distinct.  “A study of the relationship between Huxley and Kingsley suggests that while friendship can provide a forum for the cordial debate of ultimate issues, ideological differences, however, obscured by social amenities, prevail as barriers to the reconciliation of irreconcilable world-views” (28).

Huxley; Science; Religion.

Hawley, John C., S. J.  "Charles Kingsley and the Book of Nature," Anglican and Episcopal History Vol. 61, No. 4 (December 1991): 461-479.
Hawley examines Kingsley as natural theologian and his views on the “meaning” of nature.  He discusses Kingsley’s attempt to bridge the ever widening gap between the claims of science and religion and to establish a vocabulary that would be intelligible to and supportive of both fields.  In this respect he provides a comparison of Kingsley’s views on the theological beliefs of and the search for meaning in Arnold, Huxley, and Darwin.  Kingsley’s aim, according to Hawley, “was to circumvent fears and cynicism, and to move his readers into a world of scientific endeavor and Christian cooperation.  In choosing the commitment of faith over strict empiricism he became for many, in an age of increasing dichotomy between the realms of science and religion, a model of a Christian who hoped that the truths of both would ultimately coalesce” (479).

Nature; Science; Religion; Natural Theology; Arnold, Matthew; Huxley; Darwin.

Hodgson, Amanda.  "Defining the Species: Apes, Savages and Humans in Scientific and Literary Writing of the 1860s," Journal of Victorian Culture Vol. 4, No. 2 (Autumn 1999): 228-251.
Hodgson examines The Water-Babies, and particularly the characterization of Tom, in the context of the contemporary desire to distinguish humans from animals, especially apes, and the complementary efforts to define the distinctions between white civilized Europeans and "savages".  Her principal aim is to examine the relationship of this children's story to contemporary scientific theories on the nature of species as well as to compare the novel to Browning's 'Caliban upon Setebos'.

The Water-Babies; Science; Evolution; Huxley; Characterization in Novels.

Irvine, William.  Apes, Angels, & Victorians: The Story of Darwin, Huxley, and Evolution (New York: Time, 1963; 1st published 1955).
Irvine discusses the relationship and correspondence between Kingsley and Thomas Henry Huxley, stressing their views on science and religion.  Despite their radically different attitudes towards religion, both men had a strong mutual respect for each other.  Irvine mentions the openness and honesty of Huxley’s attitude towards Kingsley.

Huxley; Religion; Science.


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