F.D. Maurice
Baldwin, Stanley E. Charles Kingsley (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1934).
This is a book length treatment of Kingsley's life and works.  After chapters providing a brief biography, a discussion of the background of the novels, and a consideration of the influence of Carlyle and Maurice, Baldwin devotes separate chapters to each of the novels: Yeast, Alton Locke, Two Years Ago, Hypatia, Westward Ho!, and Hereward the Wake.  Baldwin is measured in his assessment, though he still finds much to praise in Kingsley's diverse literary endeavors. Nevertheless, he considers Kingsley the man as more prominent than his literature.  "Some men's writings are the greatest part of them, and posterity studies their lives through a spirit of curiosity excited by their works.  In a sense this is true of Kingsley, but in a truer sense many are reading Kingsley's literary works because of the indelible impression his personality made upon his fellow men, for whom, in all his activities, he labored.  His life in itself was a poem of deep lyric passion" (194).

Full Book Treatment; Overview; Carlyle; Maurice; Yeast; Alton Locke; Two Years Ago; Hypatia; Westward Ho!; Hereward the Wake.

Brown, W. Henry.  “Maurice, Kingsley and Hughes,” The Manchester Quarterly Vol. 51 (1925): 253-68.
Brown considers the life and works of Kingsley interweaving them with those of Maurice and Hughes.  All is laudatory with little critical analysis.

Overview; Hughes, Thomas; Maurice.

Hartley, Allan John. The Novels of Charles Kingsley: A Christian Social Interpretation (Folkestone: The Hour-Glass Press, 1977).
Hartley in this book-length study interprets Kingsley's novels in the light of the influence of the Christian Social Movement. He contends that Kingsley is unusual in using novels to set forth the message of one whom he, together with many others, viewed as the age's greatest prophet, F. D. Maurice. "The value of Kingsley's novels ultimately lies less in their advocacy of liberality and reform, than in their insistent justification of both on the basis of Christian humanism.  Kingsley's inspiration sprang from Maurice whose reading of the Bible had shown his disciple the meaning, both of Christianity and of history, and the novels proclaim that social improvement had necessarily to proceed within the existing framework of society, which for Kingsley meant a Christian dispensation based on Commandments engraven on tablets of stone and interpreted by sacrificial love.  A minor prophet proclaiming a minor one, Kingsley thus added a new dimension to the novel" (169).

Christian Socialism; Maurice; Religion; Social and Political Views; NovelsYeast; Alton Locke; Hypatia; Westward Ho!; Two Years Ago; Hereward the Wake.

Hertz, Alan. “The Broad Church Militant and Newman's Humiliation of Charles Kingsley,” Victorian Periodicals Review Vol. XIX, No. 4 (Winter 1986): 141-9.
Hertz considers the role of the editors of  Macmillan’s Magazine in permitting the inclusion of Kingsley’s slander of Newman.  He argues that David Masson, the editor, and Alexander Macmillan himself failed to protect Kingsley, and themselves, from his bigotry and from Newman’s consummate skill.  He shows that “What, Then, Does Dr. Newman Mean?” was essentially a group effort where Kingsley was aided by experienced controversialists who did not succeed in assessing his chances of success adequately.  Hertz also discusses the contemptuous review of the Apologia by Froude in Fraser’s Magazine which caused Froude and Kingsley to be bound more closely together than ever before.  Overall, the outcome, declares Hertz, was pejorative:  “The failure of Macmillan and Masson to save Kingsley from his own prejudice and impetuosity led to the weakening of progressive journalism and the impoverishment of Liberal intellectual discourse” (148).

Macmillan’s Magazine; Newman Controversy; Froude; Maurice.

Mendilow, Jonathan.  The Romantic Tradition in British Political Thought  (Totowa, New Jersey: Barnes & Noble, 1986).
Mendilow examines aspects of Kingsley’s political philosophy and discusses some primary influences on its development: Carlyle, Shelley, Byron, Maurice, Wordsworth, Southey, Burns, Owen.  He also stresses Kingsley’s advocacy of increased State involvement in a variety of societal spheres, for example a special ministry for sanitation, broad-ranging laws regulating employer-employee relations, an emigration scheme, more State involvement in education.  For Kingsley a paternal government “would orchestrate the different sections of the people to produce the harmonious composition of a good society” (180).

Social and Political Views; Political thought, Influences on his; Carlyle; Maurice; St. Elizabeth of Hungary.

Muller, Charles H.  Two Sermons of Charles Kingsley (Pietersburg, South Africa: University of the North, 1979).
This is the text of two previously unpublished sermon manuscripts from the Morris L. Parrish Collection, Princeton University Library.  Muller, the transcriber, notes Kingsley’s strong vein of compassion pervading the sermons. The first, originally preached at Eversley in 1846, stresses that God does not just belong to some far off eschatological future but that he is at hand in people’s normal daily life.  The second sermon, preached in 1851 at a child’s funeral, also focuses on a comforting God’s presence in everyday life.  Muller discusses the influence of F.D. Maurice’s teachings on Kingsley’s “understanding of the present relevance of divine Providence, and of the Kingdom of God as a present and spreading reality” (3).  Carlyle was another important influence.  Muller also discusses the style and the composition of these two sermons. Though they were manifestly quickly and carelessly written, probably very shortly before delivery, “Kingsley’s spoken words, as recorded in the sermons, must have had an almost magical, and very dramatic, effect on his congregation.  In each case the emotional climax shows how directly they came from the heart”(5).

Sermons; Eversley; Religion; Carlyle; Maurice.

Murray, Robert H. "Kingsley and Christian Socialism" in Studies in the English Social and Political Thinkers of the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, U.K.: Heffer, 1929), Vol. I, pp. 432-455.
After a brief analysis of the age's social and political context, especially the Marxist background, Murray provides an overview of Kingsley's life and works focusing in particular on his activities in the Christian Socialist sphere.

Overview; Maurice; Social and Political Views; Christian Socialism.

Noel, Conrad.  Socialism in Church History (Milwaukee: Young Churchman, 1911).
Noel discusses the “socialist” views and work of Kingsley and Maurice and relates them to their religious beliefs.  He denies that they were broad Churchmen; rather “they protested against broad Churchism as being almost as anti-Christian as Puseyism or popular Protestantism.  Their lives were devoted to the revival of the Catholic democratic Faith” (245).

Religion; Christian Socialism; Maurice.

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