|Adamson, John William. English
Education, 1789-1902 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964;
first published 1930).
Among several other mentions of Kingsley, Adamson refers to his advocacy
of improved educational opportunities for women.
Alderson, David. “An Anatomy
of the British Polity: Alton Locke and Christian Manliness,” in
Ruth Robbins and Julian Wolfreys (eds.) Victorian Identities: Social
and Cultural Formations in Nineteenth-Century Literature (Basingstoke,
Hampshire: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996): 43-61.
Alderson examines the history of the concept “Christian manliness”
and, in particular, Kingsley’s promotion of it in his life and works.
He focuses on the concept’s delineation in Alton Locke. He
declares that this novel “lays bare most clearly the anxieties and ideological
commitments which produced his influential conceptualisation of the relationship
between the masculine body and social order.” Alderson is particularly
concerned “with the imperatives of a counter-revolutionary and Protestant
culture which enabled the Kingsleyan sense of the ideal male body to become
so central to the masculine self-definition of Britain’s rulers” (43-44).
Christianity; Alton Locke; Imperialism.
Archer, Richard Lawrence. Secondary Education
in the Nineteenth Century (London: Cass, 1966).
Archer discusses the educational thought and practice of Kingsley and
their subsequent influence on British education. He stresses the
connection for Kingsley between religion and education; both served the
same end. Moreover, science in the curriculum was essential and was
in no respect against the teaching of religion. His ideal of mens
sana in corpore sano went hand in hand with his espousal of muscular
Christianity. He detested “the identification of bodily feebleness
with spiritual strength” (200). Archer also examines Kingsley’s important
role in the sanitary movement and his work in having hygienic instruction
Christianity; Sanitation; Science.
Bloomfield, Anne. “Muscular
Christian or Mystic? Charles Kingsley Reappraised,” International Journal
of the History of Sport Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1994): 172-190.
In her treatment of Kingsley’s role in the history of human movement,
sport, and aesthetic gymnastics, Bloomfield examines his mystical nature
and his changing views on the religiosity of body, mind and soul.
She also hypothesizes that Kingsley’s views were influenced by the work
of the Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). She concludes
that Kingsley’s work in human movement must be viewed as being more significant
than his commonly accepted role in Muscular Christianity. “Kingsley
possessed a deep commitment to the mystical aspects of Christianity as
well as its physical elements, and in terms of the philosophical development
of human movement this accords him a place uniting two important branches
of human movement, the sports ethic and the dance ethic, both of which
currently stand distanced and bifurcated at polemical points within a common
aesthetic field” (189).
Christianity; Swedenborg, Emanuel; Sport;
Bradstock, Andrew. “'A Man of God is a Holy Man':
Spurgeon, Luther and 'Holy Boldness',” in Andrew Bradstock, Sean Gill,
Anne Hogan, and Sue Morgan (eds.) Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian
Culture (Basingstoke, U.K.: Macmillan, 2000): 209-225.
There are many references to Kingsley in this study of Charles Haddon
Spurgeon, particularly with respect to the two men's views on aspects of
manliness and muscular Christianity.
Brown, David “Prevailing Attitudes Towards Sport,
Physical Exercise and Society in the 1870s: Impressions from Canadian Periodicals,”
Journal of History of Sport Vol. 17, No. 2 (Dec. 1986): 58-70.
From a study of Canadian periodicals Brown concludes that there was
a distinct link between, one the one hand, the prevalence in Victorian
Canada of muscular Christianity and an emphasis on sport and, on the other,
the works of Kingsley as well as of Thomas Hughes.
Fasick, Laura. “The Failure of Fatherhood: Maleness
and Its Discontents in Charles Kingsley,” Children's Literature Association
Quarterly Vol. 18, No. 3 (Fall 1993): 106-111.
Fasick declares that Kingsley's ideal of hyper-masculinity coexisted
with his recognition of the need of such moral qualities of humility, gentleness,
and patience. However, she contends that Kingsley, who tended to
prize the former ideal more highly, found it difficult to combine these
two distinct spectra and certainly failed to illustrate their union in
his novels. "Despite his homage to gentleness and patience, Kingley's
real attraction is apparently to the displays of power and aggression with
which he adorns his novels" (109).
Christianity; Manliness; Fatherhood;
Gay, Peter. “The Manliness of Christ,” in R.
W. Davis and R. J. Helmstadter (eds) Religion and Irreligion in Victorian
Society: Essays in Honor of R. K. Webb (London and New York: Routledge,
Gay declares that manliness for Kingsley was intimately connected with
a distinct tenderness. Though he repeatedly castigated what he viewed
as the effeminacy of the Roman Catholic and High Anglican clergy, he manifested
a number of female qualities himself. “It was this ‘feminine’ side
in him that allowed Kingsley to complicate his definition of heroism by
adding to muscular qualities, justice, restraint, modesty, and the readiness
for self-sacrifice” (115).
Haley, Bruce. The Healthy Body and Victorian
Culture (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978).
Haley in discussing Kingsley's confrontation with Newman focuses on
his complex relationship with the notion of muscular Christianity.
Kingsley disliked the term and found offensive such critics as T. C. Sanders
and Fitzjames Stephen who stressed the "muscular" aspect of his Christianity.
Still, Kingsley strongly believed that the spiritual life was very compatible
with both a sexual and a vigorous, active, sporting life. Haley declares
that he found philosophical justification for this attitude in three of
Carlyle's theories: "the body is an expression of spirit, and therefore
the obedience to healthy impulse is a sign of constitutional harmony; the
state of health is a knowledge of the laws of nature and a compliance with
these laws; and heroism is a life of action made possible by observing
the laws of health" (111-112).
Haralson, Eric. “James’s The American:
A (New)man is Being Beaten,” American Literature Vol. 64, No. 3
(September 1992): 475-495.
Haralson examines the influence of Kingsley’s notions of manliness
and muscular Christianity on Henry James’s characterization in his novels,
particularly the representation of Christopher Newman in The American
(1877). Though James in his youth was drawn to aspects of the manly
hero, his views were by no means identical to those of Kingsley.
“To read James’s four reviews of Kingsley between 1865 and 1877 . . .
is to watch him struggle to come to terms with a youthful enthusiasm that
was fast fading” (477). In particular, Kingsley’s anti-intellectual
strain in his heroes was objectionable to James. Still, as Haralson
treats at length, James used the Kingsleyan hero as a point of departure
in his depiction of Christopher Newman. Haralson also briefly sketches
the influence of Kingsley’ manly hero on James’s portrayal of such protagonists
as Caspar Goodwood in The Portrait of a Lady (1881), Basil Ransom
in The Bostonians (1886), and Nick Dormer in The Tragic Muse
Christianity; James, Henry.
Harrington, Henry R. “Charles
Kingsley's Fallen Athlete,” Victorian Studies Vol. 21, No. 1 (Autumn
In his treatment of Kingsley's views on sport, physical activity, and
the nature of manliness, Harrington declares that Kingsley, who detested
the notion of muscular Christianity, held that the manly Christian's passions
must be checked by "'feminine virtue'", that is morality and self-restraint.
Kingsley believed that it was difficult for the manly Christian to come
down from the exalted sporting moment which offered distraction from the
problems of normal existence and from sexual frustration. To do so
is essentially a fall. However, "because of 'feminine virtue', it
is a fortunate fall. Within Kingsley's private theodicy, the fallen
athlete and the manly Christian are one in a fictional world redeemed by
his faith in 'feminine virtue'" (74).
Harris, Styron. “The 'Muscular Novel': Medium
of a Victorian Ideal,” Tennessee Philological Bulletin Vol. 27 (1990):
Harris discusses the notion of “muscular Christianity”. It is
epitomized in three dominant figures of the novels: Amyas Leigh in Westward
Ho!, Tom Thurnall in Two Years Ago, and Hereward in Hereward
the Wake. Harris also discusses Kingsley’s influence on Thomas
Hughes and on Hughes’s portrayal of muscular Christianity in his novels
Brown’s Schooldays, The Scouring of White Horse, and Tom Brown at
Oxford. Both novelists took care to distinguish the muscular
Christian from one who is mere muscle and both abhorred the hero of George
Alfred Lawrence’s novel Guy Livingstone who personified “muscularity
without Christianity or moral considerations”. Nevertheless, Harris
agrees with David Newsome that despite their broader meaning of muscular
Christianity, “the muscular novel according to Kingsley and Hughes contributed
to the immense vogue of athletics from the late sixties onwards” (11).
Christianity; Thomas Hughes; Westward
Ho!; Two Years Ago; Hereward
Lucas, John A. “Victorian 'Muscular Christianity':
Prologue to the Olympic Games Philosophy,” Olympic Review Vol. 99/100
Lucas discusses the origin of and the influences on the philosophy
of sport of Baron Pierre de Coupertin (1863-1937), founder of the modern
Olympic Games. He reveals that Coupertin’s Pedagogie Sportive
credits Kingsley, as well as Arnold, with changing the definition and the
course of non-professional sport.
Newsome. David. Godliness and Good Learning:
Four Studies on a Victorian Ideal (London: Cassell, 1961).
Mention of Kingsley occurs frequently in Newsome’s work. Newsome
is particularly interested in Kingsley’s notion of manliness which he views
as being very similar to the robustness, feistiness and vigorous vitality
of thumos, as opposed to the higher excellence of arete,
equated by Coleridge with manliness. Newsome also stresses that Kingsley,
the first to combine manliness with godliness, considered manliness to
be “an antidote to the poison of effeminacy – the most insidious weapon
of the Tractarians – which was sapping the vitality of the Anglican Church”
(207). Manliness for Kingsley was using to the full all the qualities
with which God has endowed men, including the sexual function. That
is why Roman Catholicism’s celibacy provided strong evidence of that religion’s
lack of manliness and its consequent falling away from appropriate godliness.
Christianity; Sexuality; Celibacy;
Rapple, Brendan A. “The Educational Thought of
Charles Kingsley (1819-75),” Historical Studies in Education Vol.
9, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 46-64.
Rapple writes that though Kingsley’s educational works were not as
considerable as those of such contemporaries as Kay-Shuttleworth, Matthew
Arnold, Spencer, or Huxley, they were still significant. However,
they have generally received scant scholarly attention, with the exception
of his muscular Christianity activities. Contending that Kingsley
the educationist requires a more complete treatment, Rapple, “as a vanguard
to the needed account,” examines Kingsley’s “attitude to the young, his
staunch belief that the State should be deeply implicated in the provision
of education, the relation between Kingsley's 'Muscular Christianity' and
his views on education, his fervent conviction that science should figure
more noticeably in the curriculum, his belief that hygiene and sanitary
knowledge should be universally taught, and his advocacy of female education
at all levels” (47).
Socialism; Muscular Christianity;
Redmond, Gerald. “Before Hughes and Kingsley:
The Origins and Evolution of ‘Muscular Christianity’ in English Children’s
Literature,” Sporting Fictions: Proceedings of a Conference Held at
the University of Birmingham (September, 1981): 8-35.
From a thorough examination of earlier children’s literature, Redmond
argues that the presentation of the notion of muscular Christianity in
the novels of Kingsley and Hughes is the culmination of a trend that began
in the eighteenth century. Contrary to much opinion, neither Kingsley
nor Hughes were the founders of this doctrine. Redmond contends that
certain elements of muscular Christianity may be found in the works of
such authors as Rousseau, George Mogridge, William Howitt, William Clarke,
William Martin, S.G. Goodrich, Frederick Marryat, Maria Edgeworth, Dorothy
Kilner, Harriet Martineau, Catherine Sinclair, among others. “. .
. as far as muscular Christianity is concerned, Hughes and Kingsley may
have reaped the harvest, but the seeds were planted and the crop carefully
tended by many lesser-known laborers beforehand” (30).
Christianity; Hughes, Thomas.
Redmond, Gerald. "The First Tom Brown's Schooldays:
Origins and Evolution of ‘Muscular Christianity’ in Children’s Literature,
1762-1857," Quest Vol. 30 (Summer 1978): 4-18.
Redmond examines the origin and evolution of the notion of muscular
Christianity in children’s literature during the period 1762 to 1857.
He declares that elements of this notion may be found before Kingsley and
Hughes adopted it in such writers as Rousseau, Dorothy Kilner, George Mogridge,
William Howitt, William Clarke, William Martin, S. G. Goodrich, Maria Edgeworth,
Frederick Marryat, Harriet Martineau among others. The works of Hughes
and Kingsley might be considered as the climax of literary treatment of
muscular Christianity, “as the culmination of a gradual process of indoctrination
which began in the previous century” (8).
Christianity; Hughes, Thomas.
Rosen, David. "The Volcano and the Cathedral: Muscular
Christianity and the Origins of Primal Manliness," in Hall, Donald E. (ed.).
Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge
University Press, 1994): 17-44.
David Rosen provides a lengthy analysis of the development of Kingsley's
views on muscular Christianity and manliness. He stresses that these were
complex, many sided notions and that Kingsley's views on these topics,
as well as his practical involvement in complementary areas, continuously
evolved throughout his life. Rosen argues that among the many influences
on Kingsley's concept of manliness was the notion of Platonic thumos
Kingsley considered was a primal manly force, the root of all virtue and
which was manifested through sex, fighting, and morality. Rosen contends
that Kingsley's views on manliness and related topics were highly influential
and that diverse notions of Anglo-American masculinity from the mid-nineteenth
century to the present owe much to Kingsley.
Christianity; Sexuality; Plato;
“'Blighted' by a 'Upas-Shadow': Catholicism’s Function for Kingsley in
Ho!,” Victorian Newsletter Vol. 94 (Fall 1998): 10-17.
Schiefelbein examines Kingsley's severe characterizations
of Catholics in Westward Ho!, especially two of his keenest bete
noires, Catholics' worship of the Virgin Mary and Catholicism's embrace
of asceticism and condemnation of the flesh. Kingsley, advocate of
muscular Christianity and espouser of manliness, detested what he considered
to be effeminate "Mariolatry" which was responsible for weakness and womanishness
in society. He also condemned the asceticism of the Jesuits Parsons
and Campion which he held to be an unnatural rejection of God-given impulses.
They were "spiritual grotesques" (15). However, Schiefelbein also
argues that Kingsley reveals his own ascetic impulses and his attraction
to monkish ways in Westward Ho! and reconciles the opposite pulls
of asceticism and carnal and sexual nature. Schiefelbein concludes
that while "one may certainly object to the role Kingsley assigns to Catholicism
. . . it becomes an effective foil for enlightening his readers - and,
very likely, for reminding himself - of the dangers of Manicheanism" (16).
Mary; Muscular Christianity;
Tozer, Malcolm. "Charles Kingsley and the 'Muscular
Christian' Ideal of Manliness," Physical Education Review Vol. 8,
No. 1 (1985): 35-40.
Tozer sketches Kingsley’s life and works paying particular attention
to his views on manliness and its relation to muscular Christianity.
He declares that Kingsley was the individual who was most responsible for
acquainting the English with the Romantic, Christian and Chivalric ideal
of manliness, the ideal that had such a strong influence on the subsequent
development of games and outdoor pursuits in education.
Tozer, Malcolm. “Thomas Hughes: ‘Tom Brown’ versus
‘True Manliness’,” Physical Education Review Vol. 12, No. 1 (1989):
Tozer declares that Thomas Hughes’s Tom Brown’s Schooldays was
largely responsible for the emphasis of the physical in the definition
of the Victorian gentlemen and for the era’s “emerging clamour of hearty
athleticism” (44). Thus, Tozer contends, Hughes severely distorted
the far broader ideal of manliness of his Christian Socialist associates,
Charles Kingsley and F. D. Maurice.
Thomas; Muscular Christianity;
Vance, Norman. “Kingsley’s Christian Manliness,”
Vol. LXXVIII, No. 655 (January 1975): 30-38.
Vance declares that Plato's doctrine of thumos was central to
Kingsley's notion of manliness. In addition, his ideal of manliness
required a sound religious basis as well as a distinct moral independence
that eshews fatalism and moral inertia. Rejecting what he called
the Manichaeism of some Tractarians and Evangelicals who finding the world
hopelessly evil withdraw from it, Kingsley held that the ideal of true
Christian manliness required working strenuously within the world to ameliorate
it. Kingsley also embraced the more common understanding of manliness by
lauding the cultivation of the body by sport and physical exertion.
Christianity; Manliness; Religion;
Vance, Norman. The Sinews of the Spirit: The
Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought
Cambridge University Press, 1985).
Vance devotes two chapters to Kingsley's life, thought, and literary
works paying particular attention to themes of the relationship of manliness
to religion in his novels. "Christian manliness was not just an ideal
in Kingsley's fiction, it was the basis of his practical work as pastor,
teacher and reformer and the essence of his life and experience" (107).
Ho!; Two Years Ago; Hereward
the Wake; Muscular Christianity;
Wee, C. J. W.-L. "Christian Manliness and National
Identity: The Problematic Construction of a Racially 'Pure' Nation," in
Hall, Donald E. (ed.). Muscular Christianity: Embodying
the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994):
Wee discusses how Kingsley used the innovative treatment of the relationship
of Christianity to race and cultural history in the novels Alton Locke
and Westward Ho! "in a process of national self-definition, through
what might be called 'cultural nationalism'." Wee argues that in doing
so "Kingsley also reveals the problems surrounding the construction of
a pure national-imperial identity based on racial and religious heritage,
as he attempted to propagate the potent but unstable image of a masculine,
charismatic, and authoritative Englishman who stands as a representative
of a resolutely Anglo-Saxon and Protestant nation-empire" (67).
Prejudices; Social and Political