|Banton, Michael. “Kingsley’s Racial Philosophy,”
Vol. LXXVIII, No. 655 (Jan., 1975): 22-30.
In this short examination of Kingsley's views on race Banton warns
of the danger of presentism, that is interpreting these views in terms
of the perspective and context of a later period. Some of Kingsley's
writings, declares Banton, have been considered with a presentism interpretation
and he himself "has at times been categorized as a racist by authors who
reflect very little before applying this highly elastic contemporary category
to people living in a period when the understanding of the biological nature
of man was very different" (22).
Bellows, Donald. “A Study of British Conservative
Reaction to the American Civil War,” The Journal of Southern History
Vol. 51, No. 4. (Nov., 1985): 505-526.
Bellows declares that the racially prejudiced Kingsley believed that
if the Southern states seceded in the American Civil War the slaves would
be better off. Then the South would be forced by English public opinion
to treat the blacks better. In Two Years Ago Kingsley argued
that the free soil idea was preferable to slavery's abolition. Once
slavery was no longer allowed to expand, it would die.
Civil War; Slavery; Racial
Findlay, Isobel M. "Charles Kingsley," in Dictionary
of Literary Biography, Volume 190: British Reform Writers, 1832-1914.
Edited by Gary Kelly and Edd Applegate (Detroit: Gale, 1998): 145-159.
Findlay provides a bibliography of Kingsley’s own works, a short list
of further secondary readings, an account of his life and writings with
particular emphasis on his social and political views as expressed in his
reformist works. “The personal success that Charles Kingsley enjoyed
within the Church and other established social institutions throughout
his life did not prevent him from making important contributions to the
cause of reform in England. Although he has been often dismissed
as a mere popularizer of the thinking of others, especially of Maurice,
Kingsley achieved much though his parochial duties and his activities involving
political organization, print culture, and education. If he did not
resolve contradictions at the heart of reform or reconstruct hierarchic
notions of the healthy and unified social body, the power and particularity
of his writing and public oratory nevertheless generated significant social
and Political Views;
Horsman, Reginald. “Origins of Racial Anglo-Saxonism
in Great Britain Before 1850,” Journal of the History of Ideas Vol
XXXVII, No. 3 (July-September 1976): 387-410.
Discusses Kingsley’s frequent espousal of the Teutons and their society
and his belief that they regenerated a degenerate Europe at the close of
the Roman Empire. He also mentions the racial prejudices of Kingsley,
admirer and defender of Rajah Brooke, and his view that some races were
better off dead. Kingsley was sanguine that the Anglo-Saxons were
spreading Teutonic virtues throughout the world and in so doing were enlarging
the kingdom of God. “The reign of world peace, order, and morality
was to be established by the Anglo-Saxon-Teutonic Christians, and if necessary
it was to be founded on the bodies of inferior races” (410).
and Political Views; Racial prejudices;
Kovacevic, Ivanka. “Charles
Kingsley's Imperialism and the Victorian Frame of Mind,” Filoloski Pregled:
Casopis Saveza Drustava za Strane Jezike I Knjizevnost SFRJ Vol. 3-4
Kovacevic examines what
he considers to be Kingsley's manifest jingoism, racism, and imperialism,
declaring that his views on these topics were similar to those of Thomas
Carlyle, Max Muller, and J. A. Froude. He discusses briefly Kingsley's
stance on the Governor Eyre controversy, his xenophobia, his generally
negative opinion of the Spanish, the Irish, the Russians, the Indians,
and others. He declares that "Kingsley was a pure racist" who "taught
that primitive natives are mere animals" (68). Kingsley justified
his imperialism by his belief "that some are born to command and some to
obey, and he extended this belief to include nations and races as well.
If those of 'noble blood' have the right to comand, it follows that the
Aryans should govern inferior races" (55-56). Nevertheless, Kovacevic
writes that Kingsley, neither a theorist nor ideologist, should not bear
too much responsibility for the practical politics of the day. His
racist and imperialist views were those already being expounded by great
numbers of the contemporary educated English public.
and Political Views; Racial Prejudices;
Prickett, Stephen. “Purging Christianity of its
Semitic Origins: Kingsley, Arnold and the Bible,” in Juliet John and Alice
Jenkins (eds.). Rethinking Victorian Culture (London: Macmillan,
Prickett examines the role of pagan civilization and the Church in
Kingsley is favorable to neither. Rather, his theory of history leads
him to admire the Teutonic races who are civilization’s future. The
Catholicism of fourth-century Alexandria is as doomed as the pagan world
it supplanted. It is merely a proto-Christianity that is “saved only
by the presence within it of certain forward-looking characters who dimly
foreshadow, as it were, the coming age of Teutonic Protestantism a thousand
years in the future” (68-9).
Semmel, Bernard. “The Issue of 'Race' in the
British Reaction to the Morant Bay Uprising of 1865,” Caribbean
Studies Vol. 2, No. 3 (October 1962): 3-15.
In his examination of the British reaction to the Governor Eyre controversy
in Jamaica, Semmel briefly discusses the support of Kingsley, a racial
bigot, for the Governor’s actions in brutally suppressing the black uprising.
Semmel also mentions the view of Kingsley, clearly influenced by Carlyle,
that blacks together with the Irish and the English working classes were
congenitally inferior and totally unsuited for the suffrage and self-government.
Eyre, Governor; Social
and Political Views; Racial Prejudices.
Waller, John O. “Charles Kingsley and the American
Civil War,” Studies in Philology Vol. 60, No. 3 (July 1963): 554-568.
This is a study of Kingsley's views on the American Civil War and his
generally pro-Southern stance. Waller contends that numerous factors pre-disposed
him towards this stance, for example the ties of birth and family that
united him to a English social class that supported the South; his racism;
the influence of the staunchly anti-Union views of his brother Henry;
the gallantry of the South that must have been attractive to his romantic
susceptibilities; his dislike for such liberal Manchester School politicians
as Bright, Cobden, and Forster who accounted for much of Parliament's pro-Northern
Civil War; Slavery; Racial
Wee, C. J. W.-L. "Christian Manliness and National
Identity: The Problematic Construction of a Racially 'Pure' Nation," in
Hall, Donald E. (ed.). Muscular Christianity: Embodying
the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994):
Wee discusses how Kingsley used the innovative treatment of the relationship
of Christianity to race and cultural history in the novels Alton Locke
and Westward Ho! "in a process of national self-definition, through
what might be called 'cultural nationalism'." Wee argues that in doing
so "Kingsley also reveals the problems surrounding the construction of
a pure national-imperial identity based on racial and religious heritage,
as he attempted to propagate the potent but unstable image of a masculine,
charismatic, and authoritative Englishman who stands as a representative
of a resolutely Anglo-Saxon and Protestant nation-empire" (67).
Prejudices; Social and Political