Racial Prejudices
Banton, Michael.  “Kingsley’s Racial Philosophy,” Theology Vol. LXXVIII, No. 655 (Jan., 1975): 22-30.
In this short examination of Kingsley's views on race Banton warns of the danger of presentism, that is interpreting these views in terms of the perspective and context of a later period.  Some of Kingsley's writings, declares Banton, have been considered with a presentism interpretation and he himself "has at times been categorized as a racist by authors who reflect very little before applying this highly elastic contemporary category to people living in a period when the understanding of the biological nature of man was very different" (22).

Racial Prejudices; Presentism; Darwin; Evolution.

Bellows, Donald.  “A Study of British Conservative Reaction to the American Civil War,” The Journal of Southern History Vol. 51, No. 4. (Nov., 1985): 505-526.
Bellows declares that the racially prejudiced Kingsley believed that if the Southern states seceded in the American Civil War the slaves would be better off.  Then the South would be forced by English public opinion to treat the blacks better.  In Two Years Ago Kingsley argued that the free soil idea was preferable to slavery's abolition.  Once slavery was no longer allowed to expand, it would die.

America; American Civil War; Slavery; Racial Prejudices.

Findlay, Isobel M.  "Charles Kingsley," in Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 190: British Reform Writers, 1832-1914. Edited by Gary Kelly and Edd Applegate (Detroit: Gale, 1998): 145-159.
Findlay provides a bibliography of Kingsley’s own works, a short list of further secondary readings, an account of his life and writings with particular emphasis on his social and political views as expressed in his reformist works.  “The personal success that Charles Kingsley enjoyed within the Church and other established social institutions throughout his life did not prevent him from making important contributions to the cause of reform in England.  Although he has been often dismissed as a mere popularizer of the thinking of others, especially of Maurice, Kingsley achieved much though his parochial duties and his activities involving political organization, print culture, and education.  If he did not resolve contradictions at the heart of reform or reconstruct hierarchic notions of the healthy and unified social body, the power and particularity of his writing and public oratory nevertheless generated significant social change” (157).

Overview; Social and Political Views; Sanitation; Racial Prejudices.

Horsman, Reginald.  “Origins of Racial Anglo-Saxonism in Great Britain Before 1850,” Journal of the History of Ideas Vol XXXVII, No. 3 (July-September 1976): 387-410.
Discusses Kingsley’s frequent espousal of the Teutons and their society and his belief that they regenerated a degenerate Europe at the close of the Roman Empire.  He also mentions the racial prejudices of Kingsley, admirer and defender of Rajah Brooke, and his view that some races were better off dead.  Kingsley was sanguine that the Anglo-Saxons were spreading Teutonic virtues throughout the world and in so doing were enlarging the kingdom of God.  “The reign of world peace, order, and morality was to be established by the Anglo-Saxon-Teutonic Christians, and if necessary it was to be founded on the bodies of inferior races” (410).

Social and Political Views; Racial prejudices; Teutons; Anglo-Saxons.

Kovacevic, Ivanka.  “Charles Kingsley's Imperialism and the Victorian Frame of Mind,” Filoloski Pregled: Casopis Saveza Drustava za Strane Jezike I Knjizevnost SFRJ Vol. 3-4 (1975): 55-72.
Kovacevic examines what he considers to be Kingsley's manifest jingoism, racism, and imperialism, declaring that his views on these topics were similar to those of Thomas Carlyle, Max Muller, and J. A. Froude.  He discusses briefly Kingsley's stance on the Governor Eyre controversy, his xenophobia, his generally negative opinion of the Spanish, the Irish, the Russians, the Indians, and others.  He declares that "Kingsley was a pure racist" who "taught that primitive natives are mere animals" (68).  Kingsley justified his imperialism by his belief "that some are born to command and some to obey, and he extended this belief to include nations and races as well.  If those of 'noble blood' have the right to comand, it follows that the Aryans should govern inferior races" (55-56).  Nevertheless, Kovacevic writes that Kingsley, neither a theorist nor ideologist, should not bear too much responsibility for the practical politics of the day.  His racist and imperialist views were those already being expounded by great numbers of the contemporary educated English public.

Social and Political Views; Racial Prejudices; Imperialism; Carlyle; Muller, Max; Froude.

Prickett, Stephen.  “Purging Christianity of its Semitic Origins: Kingsley, Arnold and the Bible,” in Juliet John and Alice Jenkins (eds.). Rethinking Victorian Culture (London: Macmillan, 2000): 63-79.
Prickett examines the role of pagan civilization and the Church in Hypatia.  Kingsley is favorable to neither.  Rather, his theory of history leads him to admire the Teutonic races who are civilization’s future.  The Catholicism of fourth-century Alexandria is as doomed as the pagan world it supplanted.  It is merely a proto-Christianity that is “saved only by the presence within it of certain forward-looking characters who dimly foreshadow, as it were, the coming age of Teutonic Protestantism a thousand years in the future” (68-9).

Hypatia; Religion; Racial Prejudices; Anti-semitism; Arnold, Matthew.

Semmel, Bernard.  “The Issue of 'Race' in the British Reaction to the Morant Bay Uprising of 1865,”  Caribbean Studies Vol. 2, No. 3 (October 1962): 3-15.
In his examination of the British reaction to the Governor Eyre controversy in Jamaica, Semmel briefly discusses the support of Kingsley, a racial bigot, for the Governor’s actions in brutally suppressing the black uprising.  Semmel also mentions the view of Kingsley, clearly influenced by Carlyle, that blacks together with the Irish and the English working classes were congenitally inferior and totally unsuited for the suffrage and self-government.

Eyre, Governor; Social and Political Views; Racial Prejudices.

Waller, John O. “Charles Kingsley and the American Civil War,” Studies in Philology Vol. 60, No. 3 (July 1963): 554-568.
This is a study of Kingsley's views on the American Civil War and his generally pro-Southern stance. Waller contends that numerous factors pre-disposed him towards this stance, for example the ties of birth and family that united him to a English social class that supported the South; his racism; the influence of the staunchly anti-Union views of his brother Henry;  the gallantry of the South that must have been attractive to his romantic susceptibilities; his dislike for such liberal Manchester School politicians as Bright, Cobden, and Forster who accounted for much of Parliament's pro-Northern leadership.

America; American Civil War; Slavery; Racial Prejudices.

Wee, C. J. W.-L. "Christian Manliness and National Identity: The Problematic Construction of a Racially 'Pure' Nation," in Hall, Donald E.  (ed.).  Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994): 66-88.
Wee discusses how Kingsley used the innovative treatment of the relationship of Christianity to race and cultural history in the novels Alton Locke and Westward Ho! "in a process of national self-definition, through what might be called 'cultural nationalism'." Wee argues that in doing so "Kingsley also reveals the problems surrounding the construction of a pure national-imperial identity based on racial and religious heritage, as he attempted to propagate the potent but unstable image of a masculine, charismatic, and authoritative Englishman who stands as a representative of a resolutely Anglo-Saxon and Protestant nation-empire" (67).

Yeast; Westward Ho!; Manliness; Muscular Christianity; Imperialism; Racial Prejudices; Social and Political Views.

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