|Archer, Richard Lawrence. Secondary Education
in the Nineteenth Century (London: Cass, 1966).
Archer discusses the educational thought and practice of Kingsley and
their subsequent influence on British education. He stresses the
connection for Kingsley between religion and education; both served the
same end. Moreover, science in the curriculum was essential and was
in no respect against the teaching of religion. His ideal of mens
sana in corpore sano went hand in hand with his espousal of muscular
Christianity. He detested “the identification of bodily feebleness
with spiritual strength” (200). Archer also examines Kingsley’s important
role in the sanitary movement and his work in having hygienic instruction
Christianity; Sanitation; Science.
Barnard, H. C. A History of English Education
From 1760. 2nd ed. (First published 1947) (London: University
of London Press, 1961).
Barnard provides a very brief overview of Kingsley the educationist.
He declares that Kingsley was a strong advocate of science in the school
curriculum and held that it complemented the study of religion. Moreover,
he was a firm believer that a knowledge of science was essential for progress
in the hygienic and sanitary reform movement.
Cunningham, Valentine. "Soiled Fairy: The Water-Babies
in its Time," Essays in Criticism Vol. XXXV, No. 2 (April 1985):
Cunningham analyzes many of the causes and issues Kingsley treats with
heat and hysteria in The Water-Babies declaring that they frequently
coincide with the age’s heatedness and hysterias for these causes and issues.
Cunningham also discusses The Water-Babies’ various affinities to
other classic fairy-story motifs.
and Political Views;
Clothes and Nasty; Glaucus;
Fasick, Laura. "Charles Kingsley's Scientific
Treatment of Gender," in Hall, Donald E. (ed.). Muscular Christianity:
Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 1994): 91-113.
Laura Fasick examines Kingsley's representations of women against the
background of the age's scientific theories, considering that his depiction
of disease, unsanitary conditions, and bodily ill-treatment in his novels
represents an attempt to define strict gender distinctions. She argues
that "The 'factual' basis on which Kingsley founded his concern for the
maintenance of distinct gender roles was not only scientifc, but specifically
hygienic. . . . Kingsley is as obsessed with sexuality, for him sanctified
by monogamous marriage, as with hygiene, and these interests effectively
merge into one" (91).
Findlay, Isobel M. "Charles Kingsley," in Dictionary
of Literary Biography, Volume 190: British Reform Writers, 1832-1914.
Edited by Gary Kelly and Edd Applegate (Detroit: Gale, 1998): 145-159.
Findlay provides a bibliography of Kingsley’s own works, a short list
of further secondary readings, an account of his life and writings with
particular emphasis on his social and political views as expressed in his
reformist works. “The personal success that Charles Kingsley enjoyed
within the Church and other established social institutions throughout
his life did not prevent him from making important contributions to the
cause of reform in England. Although he has been often dismissed
as a mere popularizer of the thinking of others, especially of Maurice,
Kingsley achieved much though his parochial duties and his activities involving
political organization, print culture, and education. If he did not
resolve contradictions at the heart of reform or reconstruct hierarchic
notions of the healthy and unified social body, the power and particularity
of his writing and public oratory nevertheless generated significant social
and Political Views;
Rapple, Brendan A. “The Educational Thought of
Charles Kingsley (1819-75),” Historical Studies in Education Vol.
9, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 46-64.
Rapple writes that though Kingsley’s educational works were not as
considerable as those of such contemporaries as Kay-Shuttleworth, Matthew
Arnold, Spencer, or Huxley, they were still significant. However,
they have generally received scant scholarly attention, with the exception
of his muscular Christianity activities. Contending that Kingsley
the educationist requires a more complete treatment, Rapple, “as a vanguard
to the needed account,” examines Kingsley’s “attitude to the young, his
staunch belief that the State should be deeply implicated in the provision
of education, the relation between Kingsley's 'Muscular Christianity' and
his views on education, his fervent conviction that science should figure
more noticeably in the curriculum, his belief that hygiene and sanitary
knowledge should be universally taught, and his advocacy of female education
at all levels” (47).
Socialism; Muscular Christianity;
Rapple, Brendan. “The Motif of Water in Charles
Kingsley's The Water-Babies,” University of Mississippi Studies
in English Vol. XI-XII (1993-1995): 259-71.
Kingsley uses the motif of water in The Water-Babies to preach
the virtues of bathing and washing. Cleaning the body and the inculcation
of good sanitary habits is also an effective method of preventing disease.
In addition, washing with water, preferably cold water, helps the attainment
of moral rectitude. “However, the depiction of water as a cleansing
agent may also be viewed in an allegorical sense, namely as purifying morally
and spiritually both the individual Tom as well as the collective society.
Only after Tom's baptismal washing and consequent Christian rebirth does
his deeply felt wish ‘I must be clean, I must be clean’ begin to be truly
satisfied. Only after an analogous allegorical cleansing can any
genuine regeneration of England occur” (269).
and Political Views.
Reboul, Marc. “Charles Kingsley: The Rector in
the City,” in Jean-Paul Hulin and Pierre Coustillas (eds.) Victorian
Writers and the City (Lille: Publications de l'Université de
Lille III, 1979): 41-72.
Reboul argues that Kingsley influenced by the Romantics and Neo-Platonic
thought had come to regard contemporary city life to be the opposite of
the Divine. This view was reinforced by such experiences as the Bristol
Riots of 1831, the 1849 cholera epidemic in London’s East End districts
of Bermondsey and Jacob’s Island, and the appalling working conditions
endured by tailors and others in London’s sweat shops. Kingsley’s
solution to the evils of city life involved an elimination of man’s exploitation
of man and a Christianization and a humanization of the excesses of capitalism.
Above all, Kingsley, turning in his later years into an optimistic town-planner,
viewed thorough sanitation reform as the vehicle that would rebuild cities
in the image of God’s kingdom on earth. Increasingly Kingsley believed
“that man was now in a position to conquer and civilise Nature, to master
his environment, and to lay the foundations of a new society, in which
cities would no longer appear as diseased patches soiling the purity of
the landscape, but as nuclei of organisation shining with all the brightness
of their regenerated state” (62).
Socialism; Sanitation; Capitalism;
Schilling, Bernard N. “Kingsley,”
in Human Dignity and the Great Victorians (New York: Columbia University
Press, 1946): 96-122.
Schilling examines Kingsley's work as a humanitarian and his efforts
to dignify the life of England's poor. "Kingsley achieved a working
synthesis between his religion and his radicalism; he made it seem as if
he had to be a humanitarian reformer because of the implications which
he saw in religion, not in spite of them" (96). Schilling discusses
Kingsley's work on behalf of sanitary reform and his campaign against the
terrible conditions of the sweated tailoring trade, stressing Kingsley's
belief that many societal problems had their underlying cause in laissez-faire
capitalism. He also considers Kingsley's advocacy of popular medical instruction
and of cooperative movements, his plans to make art, amusement, country
life and education more available to the public, and his staunch promotion
of public education. Though Kingsley became increasingly conservative
and came to embrace a form of feudalism as he aged, Schilling concludes
that he "bore the mark of all great humanitarians - the union of compassion,
humaneness, and optimism" (122).
and Political Views;