|Archer, Richard Lawrence. Secondary Education
in the Nineteenth Century (London: Cass, 1966).
Archer discusses the educational thought and practice of Kingsley and
their subsequent influence on British education. He stresses the
connection for Kingsley between religion and education; both served the
same end. Moreover, science in the curriculum was essential and was
in no respect against the teaching of religion. His ideal of mens
sana in corpore sano went hand in hand with his espousal of muscular
Christianity. He detested “the identification of bodily feebleness
with spiritual strength” (200). Archer also examines Kingsley’s important
role in the sanitary movement and his work in having hygienic instruction
Christianity; Sanitation; Science.
Beer, Gillian. “Kingsley: 'pebbles on the shore',”
Listener Vol. 93 (17 April, 1975): 506-7.
Beer briefly considers Kingsley’s views on the importance of catering
to children’s imaginative needs. She reviews certain attributes of
Water-Babies. It is distressful, very funny, and full of social
and political digressions; some of its episodes are cruel and make us wince;
it is very sensual and crammed with physical experiences. She discusses
the important role aspects of evolutionary theory play throughout the work.
“It is hard, I think, to over-emphasise the richness of Kingsley’s recognition
of mythic elements in the ideas of development and mutation, of ‘metamorphosis’
as Darwin sometimes calls it . . .” In addition, complementing physical
transformation, moral transformation, the responsibility of the individual
himself, is a very significant theme in the work. Beer also stresses
that Mother Carey is a female principle of creativity, as opposed to the
more usual male God. Because of the occurrences of child death in
Water-Babies Beer views it as a kindertotenlied, “another of
those attempts to give meaning to the death of children, so deeply and
terribly needed by the Victorians” (507).
Blinderman, Charles S. “Huxley and Kingsley,”
Newsletter No. 20 (1961): 25-28.
Blinderman studies the relationship between Kingsley and T. H. Huxley.
Both men enjoyed a close personal friendship. However, Blinderman
argues that despite such surface similarities as their mutual approval
of determinism and Stoicism, their dislike of Positivism, their popularization
of science, and the fact that both were charged with unorthodoxy, in certain
fundamental respects, particularly their underlying attitudes to science
and to religion, they were quite dissimilar and distinct. “A study
of the relationship between Huxley and Kingsley suggests that while friendship
can provide a forum for the cordial debate of ultimate issues, ideological
differences, however, obscured by social amenities, prevail as barriers
to the reconciliation of irreconcilable world-views” (28).
Brinton, Crane. English Political Thought
in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1954).
Brinton provides an overview of Kingsley’s life and his major social
and political views. While his Christian Socialism was by no means
a system, Kingsley held that a Christian Socialist society would indeed
be hierarchical where each one's place is determined by his moral value
as well as democratic in the sense that each one's place has been allotted
by God. Brinton considers that Kingsley’s ideal society was based
on older English societies where different social classes “were knit together
by habits which were genuine human relationships”. His “programme
is singularly like that of Tory Democracy” (125). Kingsley’s paternalism
did not signify that he rejected competition. Competition was good
but workers must first be members of cooperative associations, an ideal
similar to “modern guild Socialism” (126). While Brinton considers
that Kingsley’s achievements were not insignificant, his ideals based on
his religious faith could accomplish little to improve the very practical
ills of working class and under-privileged society. “His God, his
virtue, his England, made too many promises to the flesh – promises unfulfilled
to the common man. For the uncommon man, his faith was even more
inadequate. Taste and intellect alike recoil from the simplicities
of a universe on the pattern of Eversley” (130).
and Political Views; Alton Locke;
Brock, W. H. "Glaucus: Kingsley and the
Seaside Naturalists," Cahiers Victoriens et Edouardiens Vol. 3 (1976):
Brock examines Kingsley the seaside naturalist, placing him in the
context of the contemporary scientific community. Though much of
his work, for example Glaucus, was derivative and popular in nature,
he was a good amateur naturalist. For two thirds of the century there
were few professional natural historians. Brock sees one of Kingsley's
most significant contributions to science being his advocacy for increased
science education and his desire that it be a suitable occupation for all
social classes. Science might prove an appropriate entrée
for advancement into higher society for an individual barred by more traditional
societal conventions. “. . . Kingsley became a powerful spokesman
for science education at a time when this was becoming an important issue
among the professional scientific community” (34).
Fasick, Laura. "Charles Kingsley's Scientific
Treatment of Gender," in Hall, Donald E. (ed.). Muscular Christianity:
Embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 1994): 91-113.
Laura Fasick examines Kingsley's representations of women against the
background of the age's scientific theories, considering that his depiction
of disease, unsanitary conditions, and bodily ill-treatment in his novels
represents an attempt to define strict gender distinctions. She argues
that "The 'factual' basis on which Kingsley founded his concern for the
maintenance of distinct gender roles was not only scientifc, but specifically
hygienic. . . . Kingsley is as obsessed with sexuality, for him sanctified
by monogamous marriage, as with hygiene, and these interests effectively
merge into one" (91).
Hanawalt, Mary Wheat, "Charles Kingsley and Science,"
in Philology Vol. 34, No. 4 (October, 1937): 589-611.
Hanawalt examines Kingsley’s interest and endeavors in science, arguing
that his broader philosophy and art have been misunderstood because of
the neglect shown to Kingsley the scientist. To remedy this neglect
and this misunderstanding she discusses firstly, Kingsley’s lifelong interest
in science; secondly, the relation between his science and the art of his
novels and poetry; thirdly, his views on the relation of science to religion
and the importance of science in man’s existence; and, fourthly, the general
influence of science on his philosophy.
Hawley, John C., S. J.
“Baptizing the Victorian Epimetheus,” Science et Esprit Vol.
XLIII, No. 3 (1991): 349-354.
Kingsley, declares Hawley, was unusual among Victorian clerics in being
an explicit advocate of technology. However, he was also very aware
of the grave social problems, especially among the working classes, brought
about by technology. Still his main criticism was directed at the
spirit of competition bred by the industrial age. Kingsley had “a
complex response to technology. He never portrayed the pursuit of
technology as a meaningful life in itself; he did, however, recognize its
potential for liberating men and women to engage in such a quest” (354).
and Political Views;
Hawley, John C., S. J. "Charles Kingsley and
the Book of Nature," Anglican and Episcopal History Vol. 61, No.
4 (December 1991): 461-479.
Hawley examines Kingsley as natural theologian and his views on the
“meaning” of nature. He discusses Kingsley’s attempt to bridge the
ever widening gap between the claims of science and religion and to establish
a vocabulary that would be intelligible to and supportive of both fields.
In this respect he provides a comparison of Kingsley’s views on the theological
beliefs of and the search for meaning in Arnold, Huxley, and Darwin.
Kingsley’s aim, according to Hawley, “was to circumvent fears and cynicism,
and to move his readers into a world of scientific endeavor and Christian
cooperation. In choosing the commitment of faith over strict empiricism
he became for many, in an age of increasing dichotomy between the realms
of science and religion, a model of a Christian who hoped that the truths
of both would ultimately coalesce” (479).
Theology; Arnold, Matthew; Huxley;
Hawley, John C., S.J. “The Water Babies
as Catechetical Paradigm,” Children's Literature Association Quarterly
Vol. 14, No. 1 (Spring 1989): 19-21.
Hawley declares that The Water-Babies has two principle functions,
to entertain and to teach. The goal of education for Kingsley was
ultimately a religious one. Little Tom’s adventures, his evolutionary
progress, the lessons learned all end in religious salvation. Kingsley
also uses The Water-Babies to show that science and evolution can
co-exist with religion. “With the publication of this novel he offers
his most attractive, deceptively simple presentation of the argument that
all purely scientific explanations of reality would benefit by being placed
in the larger context of Christian revelation” (20).
Henkin, Leo J. Darwinism in the English Novel
1860-1910: The Impact of Evolution on Victorian Fiction (New York:
Russell & Russell, 1963).
For Kingsley the Bible and science were compatible. He welcomed
Darwin’s theories which rendered Nature and all about him more full of
divine significance than ever before. While Kingsley reverenced Nature,
“he reverenced more the will that is above Nature. His reverence
for Nature was not antagonistic, but paid homage to his faith in the supernatural”
Hodgson, Amanda. "Defining the Species: Apes,
Savages and Humans in Scientific and Literary Writing of the 1860s," Journal
of Victorian Culture Vol. 4, No. 2 (Autumn 1999): 228-251.
Hodgson examines The Water-Babies, and particularly the characterization
of Tom, in the context of the contemporary desire to distinguish humans
from animals, especially apes, and the complementary efforts to define
the distinctions between white civilized Europeans and "savages".
Her principal aim is to examine the relationship of this children's story
to contemporary scientific theories on the nature of species as well as
to compare the novel to Browning's 'Caliban upon Setebos'.
Irvine, William. Apes, Angels, & Victorians:
The Story of Darwin, Huxley, and Evolution (New York: Time, 1963; 1st
Irvine discusses the relationship and correspondence between Kingsley
and Thomas Henry Huxley, stressing their views on science and religion.
Despite their radically different attitudes towards religion, both men
had a strong mutual respect for each other. Irvine mentions the openness
and honesty of Huxley’s attitude towards Kingsley.
Johnston, Arthur. "The Water-Babies: Kingsley's
Debt to Darwin,” English Vol. 12 (Autumn 1959): 215-19.
Johnston reviews the scientific content in a number of Kingsley’s works,
in particular the novels Yeast, Alton Locke, and Two Years
Ago. He considers that the influence of Darwinian thought and
the theory of evolution is particularly evident throughout The Water-Babies.
In fact, “The metamorphosis of Tom into a water-baby is not more wonderful
than the metamorphosis of the Origin of Species into The Water-Babies”
Maison, Margaret M. The Victorian Vision:
Studies in the Victorian Novel (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1961).
Maison considers Kingsley’s religious and spiritual thought as represented
in his novels. She declares that matters of the soul tend to be well
overshadowed in these works by stories of adventure, by depictions of physical
activity, by scenes of daring and so on. However, one pervasive religious
theme in Kingsley’s novels is the spiritual development of the characters
through strong physical activity. She contends that one of Kingsley’s
most dominant beliefs is that man’s soul necessarily suffers from long
exposure to dire physical conditions. It was as important a duty
of the parson, Kingsley believed, to care for social, economic, and political
reform as to cater to more spiritual elements. “Thus might Kingsley
answer any critic likely to accuse him of preferring sanitation to meditation”
(127). Maison also briefly considers Kingsley’s desire to reconcile
religion with science.
Manlove, Colin. “MacDonald and Kingsley: A Victorian
Contrast” in William Raeper (ed.) The Gold Thread: Essays on George
MacDonald (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990): 140-162.
In this article Manlove compares and contrasts the characters, the
views, and the writings of Kingsley and George MacDonald, who, he declares
were arguably the only two significant writers of Christian fantasy in
the Victorian period. Generally, Kingsley, whose belief and involvement
in science were much greater than MacDonald's, places nature first while
MacDonald chooses "supernature." Kingsley's God is so identifiable
with the works of His creation that He is only distinguishable from them
by faith. The God of MacDonald, who has a stronger sense of the supernatural
and the mystical, is invariably a person, whereas for Kingsley He is a
force. Nevertheless, Manlove argues that the two writers for all
their differences share a particular common bond, namely "that they chose,
alone and at almost the same time in the nineteenth century, to put what
they could of the divine presence in the fairy tale" (159).
George; Religion; Science;
Meadows, A. J. “Kingsley’s Attitude to Science,”
Vol. LXXVIII, No. 655 (January 1975): 15-22.
Meadows declares that Kingsley was unlike many of his religious contemporaries
in his belief that science and even the theories of Darwin actually strengthened
the truths of Christianity. He also states that Kingsley viewed science
as a vehicle for improving society, for example the promotion of public
health. In addition, Meadows writes that Kingsley though an enthusiastic
practitioner of science was still an amateur in a field that was quickly
Muller, Charles H. “Spiritual Evolution and Muscular
Theology: Lessons from Kingsley’s Natural Theology,” Studies in English
Vol. 15 (March 1986): 24-34.
Kingsley’s understanding of the relationship between science and religion
is quite straightforward according to Muller. The natural world for
Kingsley everywhere reveals the work of God; everything physical is but
a reflection of the Eternal Realities. The work of the scientist
is essentially a glorification of the Creator. “As a religious thinker,
Kingsley was deductive and intuitive in his logic; as a scientific thinker,
he was inductive, seeing the infinite in the finite, or maxima in minimis,
as exemplified by the wonders of creation in so lowly a creature as the
spider-crab. In seeing the divine mirrored in a pebble or spore,
however, he was combining a scientific and religious vision of life –
uniting the function of the microscope and the telescope, as it were” (31).
Paradis, James G. “Satire
and Science in Victorian Culture,” in Bernard Lightman (ed.) Victorian
Science in Context (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997): 143-175.
Paradis points out that though Kingsley was a
strong advocate of the scientific efforts of the likes of Lyell, Darwin,
and Huxley, he also eagerly sought a post-Darwinian equivalent to natural
theology. Kingsley considered that Victorian science was inadequate
in itself as a philosophy of life and caricatured its one-sided scientific
naturalist approach in The Water-Babies.
Theology; The Water-Babies.
Parrish, Geoffrey. “Kingsley and a Victorian
View of Miracles,” Faith and Freedom Vol. 38, No. 114, Part 3 (Autumn
Parrish examines Kingsley’s view of miracles as expressed in Alton
Locke. It is probable that it is Kingsley’s own view that Dean
Winstay expresses, namely that science and revealed religion, though separate,
are complementary sources of knowledge, each enjoying its own sphere of
competence. Parrish makes three points concerning Kingsley’s opinion
on miracles. “There must be a theistic interpretation of the universe,
there must be a belief in the Incarnation, and from these two there comes
the conviction that if Jesus is what Christians believe him to be, he can
do what others cannot, because he knows what the laws of nature really
Locke; Religion; Science.
Rapple, Brendan A. “The Educational Thought of
Charles Kingsley (1819-75),” Historical Studies in Education Vol.
9, No. 1 (Spring 1997): 46-64.
Rapple writes that though Kingsley’s educational works were not as
considerable as those of such contemporaries as Kay-Shuttleworth, Matthew
Arnold, Spencer, or Huxley, they were still significant. However,
they have generally received scant scholarly attention, with the exception
of his muscular Christianity activities. Contending that Kingsley
the educationist requires a more complete treatment, Rapple, “as a vanguard
to the needed account,” examines Kingsley’s “attitude to the young, his
staunch belief that the State should be deeply implicated in the provision
of education, the relation between Kingsley's 'Muscular Christianity' and
his views on education, his fervent conviction that science should figure
more noticeably in the curriculum, his belief that hygiene and sanitary
knowledge should be universally taught, and his advocacy of female education
at all levels” (47).
Socialism; Muscular Christianity;
Rauch, Alan. "The Tailor Transformed: Charles Kingsley's
Locke" in his Useful Knowledge: The Victorians, Morality, and 'The
March of Intellect' (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001): 164-189.
Rauch argues that Kingsley intended Alton Locke: Tailor and Poet,
as its name suggests, to be a novel that harmonized quite disparate themes
and ideas. A staunch believer himself in the truths of religion and science
and their ultimate integration, he hoped that Alton Locke's readers
would also accept their reconciliation and their worth when blended as
a pathway to absolute truth. However, Rauch considers that the novel
failed in this goal and that Kingsley's passionate attempt to reconcile
religion and science did not satisfy and did not convince. While
Alton's own "transformation" uses language taken from science and a purpose
taken from religion, neither are credible. "Because of its attempt to deal
with all controversies single-handedly, Alton Locke is, in fact,
a polemic and thus lacks the kind of intriguing suggestiveness that is
so characteristic of" novels by Jane Webb Loudon, Mary Shelley, and Charlotte
Brontë that succeed in linking "science with tradition without invoking
religion itself" (189).
and Political Views;
Rauch, Alan. "The Tailor Transformed: Charles Kingsley's
Locke and the Notion of Change," Studies in the Novel Vol. 25,
No. 2 (Summer 1993): 196-213.
Rauch considers Kingsley's belief that science and religion are compatible
and that the study of the former could only serve to support the teachings
of faith. Both are truth seeking activities. Kingsley also
found suggestive the parallels between transformations in the natural worlds
and transformations in the spiritual spheres. It is a parallel, declares
Rauch, that Kingsley adapted for the character of Alton in Alton Locke.
Kingsley is drawing on the progressive transformation of forms in the natural
world when he depicts the gradual change of Alton from an atheist and political
agitator to a Christian with a much moderated political reform agenda.
Notion of; Darwin; Alton
Locke; Social and Political
Raven, Rev. Canon C. E. “Charles Kingsley,” The
Listener Vol. 11, No. 283 (13 June, 1934) 1007-1008.
Though holding that Alton Locke is clearly a work of propaganda,
Raven praises it for its scene painting, its descriptions of landscape,
atmosphere, sights, sounds and smells. He declares that the best
work of Kingsley, a passionate lover of nature, was as an interpreter of
recent scientific discoveries in terms of Christianity. “. . . he
was almost the only Churchman of his time to realise that science and the
scientific method were accomplishing a revolution in human thought, and
that unless the Church recognised this it would be unfit to commend its
message to the world” (1008).
Robertson, J. M. A History of Freethought
in the Nineteenth Century. 2 Vols. (New York: Putnam's Sons,
1930). Vol. II, pp. 321-323.
Robertson very briefly discusses Kingsley’s understanding of the compatibility
of science and religion and his acceptance of the theory of evolution.
Stitt, Megan Perigoe. Metaphors of Change in the
Language of Nineteenth-Century Fiction: Scott, Gaskell, and Kingsley (Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1998).
During the nineteenth century the study of language and linguistic
analysis shared with geology certain metaphors for describing change and
theories of progress. This book analyses how Kingsley, Walter Scott, and
Elizabeth Gaskell treated language and particularly dialect in their novels.
From textual study of the novels and an analysis of the language of contemporary
science, Stitt explores how different genres affected the Victorian age’s
use of metaphor and its frequently conflicting theories of progress.
Notion of; Progress; Language;
Locke; Westward Ho!; Hereward