“The Case against Trade Unions in Early Victorian Fiction,” Victorian
Studies Vol. XIII, No. 1 (September 1969): 37-52.
Kingsley’s reaction to the Preston Strike of 1853-54 and his views in Alton Locke, according to Brantlinger, reveal his hostility to strikes and trade unions. The primary problem with trade unions for Kingsley is that “they are competitive rather than cooperative associations” (47).