|Engelhardt, Carol Marie. “Victorian Masculinity and
the Virgin Mary,” in Andrew Bradstock, Sean Gill, Anne Hogan, and Sue Morgan
(eds.) Masculinity and Spirituality in Victorian Culture (Basingstoke,
U.K.: Macmillan, 2000): 44-57.
In this article Engelhardt considers how the understanding of the Virgin Mary of three Victorian clergymen, Kingsley, Edward Pusey and Frederick Faber, was related to their view of contemporary masculine identity and, in particular, how each used the Virgin Mary to define his own masculinity. Kingsley's dislike of Mary was, as Engelhardy points out, understandable for one who hated Catholicism. However, she also relates his antipathy to the power that Catholics ascribe to Mary. Kingsley shared the common Victorian view of the domesticity of women and that it was the role of females to inspire men but that they themselves should not aspire to power. Engelhardt also contends that Kingsley's hostile attitude to Mary was related to fears about his own masculinity. Early in his life Kingsley himself had felt a pull towards Catholicism, a religion he later came to view as female-oriented and therefore unmanly. "It was no wonder, then, that Kingsley felt compelled to reject vociferously the most feminine part of this allegedly effeminate religion. Kingsley was not just denouncing Mary; he was repudiating what he considered to be his own weakness and error in desiring Rome" (47).
“'Blighted' by a 'Upas-Shadow': Catholicism’s Function for Kingsley in
Ho!,” Victorian Newsletter Vol. 94 (Fall 1998): 10-17.