List of Chapters and Contributors

I. Theme Chapters and Contributors

II. Country Chapters and Contributors

III. Higher Education Resources

IV. Contributors Brief Resume

I. Theme Chapters and Contributors

Trends and Perspectives in African Higher Education
Damtew Teferra and Philip G. Altbach

The Development of Higher Education in Africa: A Historical Survey
Y.G-M. Lulat

University Governance and University-State Relations
Kilemi Mwiria

Financing and Economics of Higher Education in Africa
Maureen Woodhall

Private Higher Education in Africa: Six Country Case Studies
Bev Thaver

Foreign Aid Financing of Higher Education in Africa
Lynn Ilon

Massification and Future Trends in African Higher Education
Richard Fehnel

Women in Universities and University-Educated Women: The Current Situation in Africa
Eva M. Rathgeber

Tertiary Distance Education and Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa
William Saint

The Concealed Villain: The Language Predicament in African Universities
Damtew Teferra

Student Activism in African Higher Education
Irungu Munene

Scientific Communication and Research in African Universities: Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century
Damtew Teferra

African Higher Education and the World
Philip G. Altbach

II. Country Chapters and Contributors

Aman Attieh

Paulo de Carvalho, Víctor Kajibanga, and Franz-Wilhelm Heimer

Corbin Michel Guedegbe

Sheldon G. Weeks

Wendengoudi Guenda

Juma Shabani

Dorothy L. Njeuma

Cape Verde
Richard A. Lobban, Jr., and Richard Leary

Central African Republic
Gaston M. NíGuerekata

Comoros, Reunion, and Seychelles (Indian Ocean Islands)
Hassan Ez-zaïm

Congo (Brazzaville)
Gaspard Mbemba

Congo, Democratic Republic of (Zaire)
Matundu Lelo

Cote d'Ivoire
Pascal Valentin Houenou and Yveline Houenou-Agbo

Nabil Mohamed and Damtew Teferra

Mohsen Elmahdy Said

Equatorial Guinea
Deborah Pomeroy

Cheryl Sternman Rule

Habtamu Wondimu

Vincent Mintsa mi-Eya

Kabba E. Colley

Paul Effah

Soriba Sylla with Hassan Ez-zaïm and Damtew Teferra

Julieta Mendes

Charles Ngome

Matora Ntimo-Makara

Patrick L. N. Seyon

Ali El-Hawat

James Stiles

Joseph P.A. Chimombo

Diola Bagayoko and Moussa M. Diawara

Ahmed Kharchi

R. Baichoo, S.K.A. Parahoo, and I. Fagoonee

Mohamed Ouakrime

Arlindo Chilundo

Barnabas Otaala

Abdoulaye Niandou Souley

Munzali Jibril

Jolly Mazimhaka and G.F. Daniel

Sao Tome and Principé
Maria de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Lucio Lima Viegas Pinto and James S. Taylor

Honore-Georges Ndiaye

Sierra Leone
Joseph B. A. Kandeh, Thomas M. Dugba, and Joseph L. Pessima

Mohamed Nur-Awaleh

South Africa
George Subotzky

M. E. A. El Tom

Margaret Zoller Booth

Daniel Mkude and Brian Cooksey

Mahamat-Ahmed Al Habo

Edee A.B.K.M. Emmanuel

Benoît Millot, Jeffrey Waite, and Hedi Zaiem

Nakanyike B. Musisi

Y. G-M. Lulat

Raymund Maunde

III. Higher Education Resources

Bibliography on Higher Education in Africa
Damtew Teferra and Alma Maldonado-Maldonado

Doctoral Dissertations on Higher Education in Africa
Damtew Teferra and Alma Maldonado-Maldonado

IV. Contributors Brief Resume

[Alphabetized by last name]

Mahamat-Ahmad Al Habo is senior researcher at the Faculty of Exact (Natural) and Applied Sciences at the Université de NíDjaména, Chad.

Philip G. Altbach is co-director and lead researcher of the African higher education project. He is the J. Donald Monan, SJ professor of higher education and director of the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA. He has taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the University of Wisconsin, USA.

Aman Attieh is on the faculty at Rice University, Austin, Texas, USA. She holds a Masters from the American University of Beirut and a PhD from the University of Texas, Austin. She also taught at the King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and University of Texas, Austin. Her research interests focus on Arabic education, language, and cultural proficiency.

Diola Bagayoko is Southern University System Distinguished Professor of Physics and a Chancellorís Fellow at Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. He is director and founder of the Timbuktu Academy at Southern University. He is a 1996 recipient of the US Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring.

R. Baichoo is a lecturer at the Faculty of Law and Management in the University of Mauritius where she teaches marketing management and international marketing.

Margaret Zoller Booth is assistant professor of educational psychology and comparative education at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, USA. She holds a Ph.D. in these two fields from Ohio University, USA. A former Peace Corps teacher in Kenya, she has also conducted educational research in Swaziland.

Paulo de Carvalho holds an MA in sociology at Warsaw University and is currently studying for his PhD at the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa, at the Lisbon Universityís School of Social and Business Studies. He has been a lecturer in sociology at Universidade Agostinho Neto since 1998; since 1990, he has been conducting research on social stratification, social exclusion, and ethnic relations in Angola.

Arlindo Chilundo is assistant professor of history at Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique. He is also planning director and coordinator of the Land Studies Unit at the University. He has published widely on social and economic history of Mozambique.

Joseph P. G. Chimombo is director and research fellow at the Center for Educational Research and Training of the University of Malawi. He holds a doctorate from the University of Sussex, United Kingdom. His research interests focus on educational policy planning and evaluation.

Kabba E. Colley is currently assistant professor of science and technology education at Queens College of the City University of New York. He holds an Ed.D. from Harvard University. He worked in Gambia for 10 years as an agricultural science educator. He has also served on the faculty of the New York Institute of Technology in New York and at the Massachusetts Bay Community College in Wellesley, Massachusetts.

Brian Cooksey holds a PhD from the Center of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, UK. He taught sociology in the University of Jos, Nigeria, and the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

G. F. Daniel is currently management consultant at the Kigali Institute of Science, Technology, and Management. He holds a bachelorís in history from the University of Ghana and a masterís in Administration and Policy Analysis in Higher Education from Stanford University, USA. He was a former Academic Registrar and Registrar at the University of Ghana.

Moussa M. Diawara is associate professor of biology and director of the master of Science in Applied Natural Science program at the University of Southern Colorado, Colorado, USA.

Thomas M. Dugba is dean of the Faculty of Education, Njala University College, Sierra Leone. He holds a masterís in education from The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, and an Ed.D. from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA.

Paul Effah is currently executive secretary of the National Council for Tertiary Education in Ghana. He holds a BA (Hons.) and MPA from Universities of Cape Coast and Ghana, Legon respectively. He has served as a university registrar and as secretary of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors. His interests and expertise are in the area of higher education administration and management.

M. E. A. El Tom obtained holds a doctorate in mathematics from Oxford University, UK. He taught at universities in Sudan, UK, USA, and Qatar.

Ali El-Hawat is professor of Sociology, at the University of Al-Fateh, Libya.

Edee A. B. K. M. Emmanuel is professor at the Department of Applied Physics in the University of Lome, Togo. He is a former director of scientific research at the University. He is also a former director general of higher education in Togo.

Hassan Ez-zaïm is doctoral student in higher education administration and a research assistant at the Lynch School of Education, Boston College, USA. He holds an MA in higher education administration from the same University, another MA in translation from King Fahd Advanced School of Translation in Tangier, Morocco. He was on the staff at Al Akhaway University in Ifrane (AUI) Morocco.

I. Fagoonee is a Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the University of Mauritius and a professor with over 25 years of teaching and research experience in Applied Biological Science at the University of Mauritius. He was Dean of Faculty of Science before being appointed pro-vice-chancellor, responsible for curriculum development, distance education, life long learning and quality assurance.

Richard Fehnel is an education consultant, recently retired from the Ford Foundation, where he served as Program Officer responsible for higher education in South Africa. He holds a masterís from the University of Washington and a Ph D from Cornell University in Public and Development Administration, USA.

Corbin Michel Guedegbe specializes in comparative education and educational policy and administration. He has taught at Benin National University and at Catholic Institute of West Africa, a branch of the John Paul Institute of Rome. He has held various senior positions at the ministries in charge of education in Benin and has worked with several international organizations including USAID, UNDP, UNICEF and the African Development Bank.

Wendengoudi Guenda is on the staff of the External Relations Office of the University Cooperation Department at the University of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Franz-Wilhelm Heimer, is professor emeritus, founding member, and current chair of the Center of African Studies. Having been a senior researcher at the Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut in Germany, he then taught development sociology and African studies, with special emphasis on Lusophone Africa, at the Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa (ISCTE), the Lisbon University School of Social and Business Sciences. He is a.

Pascal Valentin Houenou, is dean of the environmental sciences and management unit at the University of Abobo-Adjamé, Côte díIvoire. He is also an advisor of the university president on international affairs.

Yveline Houenou-Agbo is professor at the Medical Sciences Training and Research Unit, Mother and Child Department, University of Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire.

Lynn Ilon is an educational economist and associate professor at the Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA. Her research focuses on educational policy and planning issues arising from the globalization of the world's economies.

Munzali Jibril is executive secretary of the National Universities Commission in Nigeria. He holds an MA in modern English from the University of Leeds, UK. and a PhD in Linguistics from the University of Lancaster, UK. He was formerly dean of the Faculty of Arts and the Postgraduate School, Deputy Vice-Chancellorship of Bayero University, and Provost of the Nigerian Defence Academy in Nigeria.

Víctor Kajibanga holds an MA and a PhD in sociology from Lomonossov University, Moscow, Russia. He has been teaching sociology at Universidade Agostinho Neto, Luanda, Angola, since 1992, and is now full professor and Vice-Rector of that university. He also teaches at Universidade Jean Piaget de Angola and maintains research connections with the Universidade do Porto, Portugal as well as with Lomonossov University.

Joseph B. A. Kandeh on the faculty at the Department of Agricultural Education, Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone. He holds an MSc in agricultural education from Ohio State University, USA. His doctorate is in agricultural extension education, higher educational administration, and research and evaluation.

Ahmed Kharchi is a staff at the University of Nouakchott, Mauritania, responsible for the development of cooperation between his institution and foreign partners. He has actively participated in the development of research reports for bilateral and multilateral organizations for the Ministry of Planning, Mauritania.

Richard Leary holds a bachelors in electrical engineering from Northeastern University. He is an Information Systems Architect, who created and moderates the popular Cape Verdean website The Unofficial Cape Verde Home Page.

Matundu Lelo is currently a coordinator of cooperation at the Administrative Council of Congolese Universities. He holds a masterís degree (D.E.S) in Development Cooperation Studies from Brussels University (ULB). He also holds a masterís in public management and administration from Anvers University (France) and a diploma from National University of Zaire.

Richard A. Lobban, Jr. holds a PhD in Anthropology from Northwestern University. He is professor of anthropology and African studies at Rhode Island College. He was a founder of the Cape Verdean Studies Special Collection at the College and a faculty member of the Cape Verde Study Abroad program with University of Rhode Island.

Y. G-M. Lulat holds a PhD in comparative education and higher education from the State University of New York, Buffalo. He is currently working on a critical history of higher education in Africa.

Maria de Lourdes Machado-Taylor is senior consultant to the Presidency and former administrator at the Polytechnic Institute of Braganca, Portugal.

Alma Maldonado-Maldonado is doctoral student in higher education administration and a research assistant at the Lynch School of Education, Boston College, USA. She has been on the staff of the Center for University Studies at the National Autonomous University of Mexico where she studied undergraduate and postgraduate.

Raymund Maunde, holds two masterís from New York University in international education and pedagogy and a PhD in higher education from the University of Alaska-Fairbanks. He is currently working as a pastor introducing capacity building at St Josephís Hatfield and Epworth parish of the Archdiocese of Harare of the Roman Catholic Church, Zimbabwe.

Jolly Mazimhaka is dean of the School of Language Studies at the Kigali Institute of Science, Technology, and Management, and also leads the Gender Resource Team at the same Institute. She holds an MA in literature and a PhD in gender and race relations. She has been assisting the Committee on Higher Education in the drafting of Rwandaís higher education sub-sector policy.

Gaspard Mbemba studied in Congo and France and holds a doctorate in material sciences. He is director and research professor of solid-state physics at the Teacherís College in Brazzaville, Congo. He is also the administrative manager of UNESCO chair in science education and advisor to the Ministry of Education both in Congo.

Julieta Da Purificação Graça Mendes is currently a technical advisor to the parliament of Guinea-Bissau. She holds a doctorate in leadership and administration, and a master's in educational policy, and a Bachelor's degree in sociology and economics. She was formerly a special advisor to the prime minister.

Vincent Mintsa Mi-Eya is currently an adviser to the ministerís cabinet for higher education and technological innovation in Gabon. He was formerly president of the University of Technical Sciences of Masuku in Franceville and vice-president of the Association of African Universities.

Benoît Millot is Lead Education Specialist in the Africa Region of the World Bank. He has worked in a number of African countries. He holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Dijon-Bourgogne in France. He was a senior researcher in economics of education at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) in France.

Daniel Mkude is professor of linguistics at the University of Dar es Salaam. He holds a doctorate in the linguistics from the University College, London, UK. He is former Head of Department, Dean of Faculty and Chief Administrative Officer of the University.

Nabil Mohamed is on the staff of the Institut Supérieur díEtudes et de Recherches Scientifiques et Téchniques (ISERST) in Djibouti.

Irungu Munene is Program Associate with the State University of New York Research Foundation in the Bridge Program, USA. He holds a masterís in Education from Kenyatta University, Kenya and a doctorate in Education Administration and Policy Studies from the State University of New York at Albany, USA.

Nakanyike B. Musisi is director of Makerere Institute of Social Research at Makerere University, Uganda. She holds an MA and MLit from the University of Birmingham, UK and a PhD from the University of Toronto, Canada. She taught at the University of Toronto, where she is a tenured Associate Professor of History and Womenís Studies.

Kilemi Mwiria is an education consultant. He was educated at the universities of Nairobi, Chicago, and Stanford. He was formerly a Senior Research Fellow at Kenyatta University, and Secretary-General of the National Academic Staff Union, Kenya.

Gaston M. NíGuerekata is associate professor at Morgan State University, Maryland, USA. He holds a PhD in Mathematics from the University of Montreal in Canada and was a former vice rector of the University of Bangui, in the Central African Republic. He also occupied several positions at the ministerial level in the Central African Republic.

Honore-Georges Ndiaye is currently coordinating higher education reform in Senegal. He was lead researcher at the remote sensing department and national coordinator of satellite image use in Senegal.

Charles Ngome is a doctoral student and a lecturer in the faculty of education, Kenyatta university, Kenya. He has done extensive research in contemporary educational issues.

Dorothy L. Njeuma is the vice-chancellor of the University of Buea, Cameroon. She is also the vice-president of the Association of African Universities.

Matora Ntimo-Makara is a senior lecturer in the Department of Educational Foundations, Lesotho. Her areas of specialisation are curriculum and instruction and educational administration and management.

Mohamed A. Nur-Awaleh is an assistant professor at the Department of Educational Administration and Foundations, at Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, USA. He holds an MA and MS and PhD from State University of New York, Albany, USA.

Barnabas Otaala is Coordinator of the Unit for Improving Teaching and Learning at the University of Namibia and the African Virtual University. He holds an MA in developmental psychology and Ed.D. from Teachers College, Columbia University, USA. He was former professor of educational psychology and dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Namibia. He has previously worked at Makerere University, Uganda, Kenyatta University, Kenya, and the National Teachers College, Lesotho.

Mohamed Ouakrime is professor of English language and linguistics at the Faculty of Letters, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah University, Morocco. He is also coordinator of Research in Higher Education Unit and Research and Development Doctoral Unit.

A. Parahoo is an assistant registrar at the University of Mauritius. He has over 30 years of experience in the education sector. As part of his duties he assists the pro-vice-chancellor in curriculum development, distance education, life long learning, and quality assurance.

Joseph L. Pessima is on the faculty at the Faculty of Education, Njala University College, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone. He was former director general in the Ministry of Education in Sierra Leone. He holds a masterís degree in Educational Administration and Planning from Ahmadu Bello University Nigeria, and an Ed.D. in Administrative and Policy Studies from the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Lucio Lima Viegas Pinto is president of the Polytechnic Institute of Sao Tome and Principe.

Deborah Pomeroy is an assistant professor of science education at Arcadia University, (formerly known as Beaver College), Glenside, Pennsylvania, USA. She holds an M.Ed. from University of Alaska-Fairbanks and an Ed.D. at Harvard University. Her collaboration with colleagues led to developing Arcadia's partnership projects in Equatorial Guinea.

Eva M. Rathgeber was until recently director of the International Development Research Centerís office in Nairobi, Kenya. She is currently teaching at York University in Toronto, Canada . She holds a PhD in comparative education from the State University of New York at Buffalo, USA.

Cheryl Sternman Rule is a research analyst with the Project on Faculty Appointments at Harvard University. She holds an Ed.M. from Harvard University. She served as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Eritrea.

Mohsen Elmahdy Said is the head of Applied Mechanics Group and professor of Mechanical Design and Production Department at the Faculty of Engineering at - Cairo University, Egypt. He has served as director of the Project Implementation Unit at the Ministry of Higher Education and a member of the Board of Trustees, and University Board, Misr International University. He is also a member of the executive committee and co-secretary of the National Committee on Higher Education Enhancement Program.

William Saint is senior expert on African higher education at the World Bank.

Patrick L. N. Seyon, is a research fellow at the African Studies Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. He holds a master's and doctoral degrees from Stanford University, with specialization in higher education administration and policy analysis. He was former president of the University of Liberia. A Liberian, he has taught and conducted research in Liberia for many years and has lectured at Harvard, Northeastern University, and Lesley universities.

Juma Shabani is a Senior Specialist in Higher Education in Africa at the UNESCO Regional Office Dakar, Senegal. He was a deputy secretary general of the Association of African Universities and vice rector of the University of Burundi.

Abdoulaye Niandou Souley is associate professor and head of department in the Law School at the University of Abdou Moumouni. He holds a PhD in political science.

James Stiles is currently completing his doctorate in higher education at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. A former university administrator, his research interests lie in the areas of performance measurement and evaluation of non-profit organizations and the history and current context of higher education in developing countries.

George Subotzky is director of the Education Policy Unit, at the University of Western Cape, Belleville, South Africa. He recently co-authored a book entitled The Skewed Revolution: Trends in South African Higher Education 1988-1998.

Soriba Sylla is a professor in the department of sociology at the University of Conakry, Guinea. He holds a PhD in political science. He is a coordinator of PADES, Projet díAppul au Développement de líEnseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique.

James S. Taylor is vice president and professor at Pittsburg State University, Kansas, USA.

Damtew Teferra is co-director and lead researcher of the African higher education project, at the Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, USA. He holds a masterís in publishing from Stirling University, UK and a PhD in higher education administration from Boston College. He has published several books and articles on a variety of issues including higher education and publishing in Africa.

Bev Thaver is a senior researcher in higher education at the Education Policy Unit, University of the Western Cape, South Africa. She holds a masterís in Southern African history from York University, UK, and a PhD in adult education from the University of Western Cape.

Jeffrey Waite is senior education specialist in the Middle East and North Africa Region of the World Bank. He holds a PhD in Linguistics from the Université de Montréal. He held policy advisory positions with the New Zealand Government, including in the Treasury Department, the Education Ministry and in the Maori Language Commission.

Sheldon G. Weeks holds an Ed.D from Harvard University. He has taught at five universities: Harvard, Makerere, Dar es Salaam, Papua New Guinea, and Botswana. He is currently dean of the School of Graduate Studies, at the University of Botswana. Prior to that he was Director of Educational Research in Papua New Guinea and a faculty in East Africa. He is also the president of the Southern African Comparative and History of Education Society.

Habtamu Wondimu is associate professor of psychology in the Faculty of Education at Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. He holds a Bachelor's and masterís Degrees in General Psychology; and a PhD in social psychology from the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. He has served as head of several departments and is currently a member of the Universityís Senate.

Maureen Woodhall is senior research fellow in the Department of Education, University of Wales, and an emeritus reader in education finance at the Institute of Education, University of London, UK. She has published numerous articles and books on the economics and finance of education, particularly on financing higher education.

Hedi Zaïem lectures Economics and Statistics at the University of La Manouba in Tunisia. He studied at the Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Economique (ENSAE) in Paris and holds a PhD in Economics from the University of Tunis, Tunisia. He has also been an adviser to the Tunisian Minister of Higher Education, initially heading the Ministry's Planning and Programming Bureau and now coordinating the Higher Education Reform Support Project.

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